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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 001-00812
RAYTHEON TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware06-0570975
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 1000 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22209
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(781)522-3000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($1 par value)RTXNew York Stock Exchange
(CUSIP 75513E 101)
2.150% Notes due 2030RTX 30New York Stock Exchange
(CUSIP 75513E AB7)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes       No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes   ¨    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes      No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes       No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
1



Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes       No  
The aggregate market value of the voting Common Stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2022 was approximately $141,816,683,821, based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price for such shares on that date. For purposes of this calculation, the Registrant has assumed that its directors and executive officers are affiliates.
At January 31, 2023, there were 1,464,954,584 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement for its 2023 Annual Meeting of Shareowners are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.
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Table of Contents
INDEX
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.


Raytheon Technologies Corporation and its subsidiaries’ names, abbreviations thereof, logos, and products and services designators are all either the registered or unregistered trademarks or tradenames of Raytheon Technologies Corporation and its subsidiaries. Names, abbreviations of names, logos, and products and services designators of other companies are either the registered or unregistered trademarks or tradenames of their respective owners. References to internet web sites in this Form 10-K are provided for convenience only. Information available through these web sites is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
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Table of Contents
PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
General
Raytheon Technologies Corporation is an aerospace and defense company that provides advanced systems and services for commercial, military and government customers worldwide. The terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “Raytheon Technologies,” “RTC” and the “Company” mean Raytheon Technologies Corporation, unless the context indicates another meaning. We serve commercial and government customers in both the original equipment and aftermarket parts and services segments of the aerospace industry. Our defense business serves both domestic and international customers as a prime contractor or subcontractor on a broad portfolio of defense and related programs for military and government customers. Raytheon Technologies, formerly known as United Technologies Corporation (UTC), was incorporated in Delaware in 1934.
The following description of our business should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” within Item 7 of this Form 10-K, including the information contained therein under the heading “Business Overview.”
Business Segments
Our operations are classified into four principal business segments: Collins Aerospace (Collins), Pratt & Whitney, Raytheon Intelligence & Space (RIS) and Raytheon Missiles & Defense (RMD), with each segment comprised of groups of similar operations. The Company recently announced its intention to streamline the structure of its core businesses into three principal business segments: Collins Aerospace, Pratt & Whitney and Raytheon. The Company plans to determine the exact composition of each segment and implement the reorganization in the second half of 2023. All segment information included in this Form 10-K is reflective of the existing four segments of Collins, Pratt & Whitney, Raytheon Intelligence & Space and Raytheon Missiles & Defense in accordance with the management structure in place as of December 31, 2022.
Collins Aerospace. Collins is a leading global provider of technologically advanced aerospace and defense products and aftermarket service solutions for aircraft manufacturers, airlines, and regional, business and general aviation, as well as for defense and commercial space operations. Collins’ product lines include integrated avionics systems, aviation systems, communications systems, navigation systems, electric power generation, management and distribution systems, environmental control systems, flight control systems, air data and aircraft sensing systems, engine control systems, engine components, engine nacelle systems, including thrust reversers and mounting pylons, interior and exterior aircraft lighting, aircraft seating and cargo systems, evacuation systems, landing systems, including landing gear, wheels and braking systems, hoists and winches, fire and ice detection and protection systems, actuation systems, and propeller systems. Collins also designs, manufactures, and supports cabin interior, oxygen systems, food and beverage preparation, storage and galley systems, lavatory and wastewater management systems. Collins’ solutions support human space exploration with environmental control and power systems and extravehicular activity suits and support government and defense customer missions by providing airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems, test and training range systems, crew escape systems, and simulation and training solutions. Collins also provides connected aviation solutions and services through worldwide voice and data communication networks and solutions. Aftermarket services include spare parts, overhaul and repair, engineering and technical support, training and fleet management solutions, asset management services and information management services.
Collins sells aerospace and defense products and services to aircraft manufacturers, airlines and other aircraft operators, the U.S. and foreign governments, defense contractors, maintenance, repair and overhaul providers, and independent distributors around the world. Collins’ largest commercial customers are Boeing and Airbus with combined sales, prior to discounts and incentives, of 20%, 18% and 21% of total Collins segment sales in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
In 2022, Collins was awarded significant defense contracts for the electric power generation system on the B-52 modernization program, along with multiple awards related to enabling the Department of Defense’s Joint All Domain Command and Control (JADC2) initiatives for the connected battlespace, including a five-year contract by the U.S. Army for the Mounted Assured Positions, Navigation and Timing System (MAPS) Gen II and a contract for the mission system for the U.S. Army Air Launched Effects (ALE). Collins was also one of two companies selected to develop and produce NASA’s next-generation spacesuit for the International Space Station and for Artemis. In addition, in 2022, Collins integrated the FlightAware Foresight portfolio of industry-leading machine learning based predictive analytics, following Collins’ acquisition of FlightAware in November 2021. Collins also received numerous commercial air transport contract awards for airline selected buyer-furnished equipment installation for interiors, avionics, and wheels and brakes, along with a number of long-term FlightSense airline maintenance agreements. In addition, Collins continued its significant product development activities, including for major systems on the Airbus A321XLR, the Boeing 777X and 737 MAX 10, the Dassault Falcon 6X and the Xian MA700, final certification on COMAC’s C919, and systems in support of the Boeing T-7A trainer and the Boeing VC-25B.
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Pratt & Whitney. Pratt & Whitney is among the world’s leading suppliers of aircraft engines for commercial, military, business jet and general aviation customers. Pratt & Whitney’s Commercial Engines and Military Engines businesses design, develop, produce and maintain families of large engines for wide- and narrow-body and large regional aircraft for commercial customers and for fighter, bomber, tanker and transport aircraft for military customers. Pratt & Whitney’s small engine business, Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC), is among the world’s leading suppliers of engines powering regional airlines, general and business aviation, as well as helicopters. Pratt & Whitney also produces, sells and services military and commercial auxiliary power units. Pratt & Whitney provides fleet management services and aftermarket maintenance, repair and overhaul services in all of these segments.
Pratt & Whitney sells products and services principally to aircraft manufacturers, airlines and other aircraft operators, aircraft leasing companies and the U.S. and foreign governments. Pratt & Whitney’s largest commercial customer by sales is Airbus, with sales, prior to discounts and incentives, of 33%, 31% and 30% of total Pratt & Whitney segment sales in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Pratt & Whitney produces the PW1000G Geared Turbofan (GTF) engine family, the first of which, the PW1100G-JM, entered into service in January 2016. The PW1000G GTF engine has demonstrated a significant reduction in fuel burn and noise levels and lower environmental emissions when compared to legacy engines. The PW1100G-JM engine is offered on the Airbus A320neo family of aircraft. PW1000G GTF engine models also power the Airbus A220 passenger aircraft and Embraer’s E-Jet E2 family of aircraft. In addition, P&WC’s PW800 engine has been selected to exclusively power Gulfstream’s G400, G500 and G600 business jets, as well as to power Dassault’s Falcon 6X business jet, which is scheduled to enter into service in 2023.
Pratt & Whitney is under contract to produce and sustain the F135 engine for the U.S. government’s F-35 Joint Program Office to power the single-engine F-35 Lightning II aircraft (commonly known as the Joint Strike Fighter) produced by Lockheed Martin. F135 propulsion system configurations are used for the U.S Air Force’s F-35A, the U.S. Marine Corps’ F-35B and the U.S. Navy’s F-35C jets. F135 engines are also used on F-35 aircraft purchased by Joint Strike Fighter partner countries and other countries through foreign military sales arrangements. Pratt & Whitney is also under contract to build engines for the U.S. Air Force’s B-21 long-range strike bomber and to develop next-generation adaptive engines for the U.S. Air Force.
The development of new engines and improvements to current production engines present important growth opportunities for Pratt & Whitney. In view of the risks and costs associated with developing new engines, Pratt & Whitney has entered into collaboration arrangements in which revenues, costs and risks are shared with third parties. At December 31, 2022, the interests of third-party collaboration participants in Pratt & Whitney-directed jet engine programs ranged, in the aggregate per program, from 13% to 49%. See “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for a description of our accounting for collaboration arrangements. Pratt & Whitney also continues to enhance its programs through performance improvement measures and product base expansion, utilizing similar collaboration arrangements.
In 2022, Pratt & Whitney reached significant milestones on the GTF engine program, including surpassing a billion gallons of fuel saved and 10 million metric tons of carbon emissions avoided since entry into service. The GTF Advantage engine for the A320neo family began Federal Aviation Regulations Part 33 (FAR33) certification and development flight testing on the A320neo aircraft, and successfully ran on 100% sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). The GTF Advantage configuration extends the economic and environmental benefits of today’s GTF engine, as it reduces fuel consumption by an additional 1 percent, extending the engine's lead as the most efficient powerplant for the A320neo family. The GTF family now powers more than 1,400 aircraft across 64 airlines and three aircraft platforms: Airbus A320neo family, Airbus A220 and Embraer E-Jets E2. The year also saw the entry into service of multiple new platforms, including the Cessna SkyCourier, Daher Kodiak 900 and TBM960, and ATR’s next generation 42 & 72 aircraft powered by the new PW127XT-M engines, with Transport Canada engine certifications of the PW127XT-M, PW812GA and PW812D engines to power the ATR 72-600 regional turboprop, Gulfstream G400 and Dassault Falcon 6X aircraft respectively. In addition, Pratt & Whitney received a significant number of contract awards for the F135 program, which powers all three variants of the F-35 Lightning II fighter aircraft including an undefinitized contract action for Lots 15-17 and funding to begin work on an F135 engine core upgrade. The F135 program also achieved several F135 production milestones, including the delivery of the 1,000th production engine, and Pratt & Whitney added new customers, Switzerland, Canada, and Germany to the program. Significant activity continued on development programs including the Adaptive Engine Testing Program, as well as the rollout ceremony for the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider, powered by Pratt & Whitney engines.
Raytheon Intelligence & Space. RIS is a leading provider of integrated space, communication and sensor systems, and cyber and software solutions to intelligence, defense, federal and commercial customers. RIS’s Sensing and Effects business provides intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, precision targeting radars, and electronic warfare solutions across all domains, as well as end-to-end space solutions, including missile warning and intelligence, weather, and navigation. RIS Sensing and Effects products include the Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS) product family of sensors, Electro Optical Distributed Aperture System (EODAS), AN/APG-79 AESA Radar, AN/APG-82(V)1 AESA Radar, Next Generation Jammer Mid-Band
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(NGJ-MB), Global Positioning System (GPS) Next-Generation Operational Control System (GPS-OCX), Next Generation Overhead Persistent Infrared (OPIR), and Future Operationally Resilient Ground Evolution (FORGE). RIS’s Command, Control and Communications business provides automated battle management and secure, resilient communications systems, including terminals providing satellite communications connecting submarines, ships, aircraft and ground stations for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), identification friend or foe interrogators and transponders, and automation, surveillance, navigation, and landing solutions including the Joint Precision Approach Landing System (JPALS). RIS’s Cyber, Training and Services provides full-spectrum cyber and service solutions in every domain, including offensive and defensive cyber services for certain classified and department of defense customers, cyber protection solutions which secure and monitor information technology (IT) systems and networks across the federal and commercial domains, and high consequence missions which provide classified special mission support and IT intelligence services to certain classified customers.
RIS serves as a prime contractor or major subcontractor on contracts with the U.S. Intelligence Community, DoD, Department of Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other international and classified customers.
In 2022, RIS continued to grow its classified business, receiving a number of significant contracts. RIS was selected as the prime contractor to develop a prototype Missile Track Custody system, a Medium Earth Orbit missile tracking system, for the U.S. Space Force. In addition, RIS won a competitive contract from the Federal Aviation Administration to upgrade the Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS), a space-based precision navigation system that will enhance safer air travel in support of the National Airspace System. RIS continued to invest in advancing its products and services, as well as developing next generation capabilities to meet evolving customer missions. RIS achieved significant advancements in key capabilities across its portfolio, including tactical airborne radars for current and future manned and unmanned aircraft, intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) radar frequency products, laser technologies, and classified space mission systems.
Raytheon Missiles & Defense. RMD is a leading provider of end-to-end solutions for U.S. and foreign government customers designed to detect, track and engage threats. RMD’s systems span air, land, sea and space, and are designed to defend against the most sophisticated threats. RMD’s Air Power business provides air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons that deliver power and precision to fourth- and fifth-generation fighters including the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) and StormBreaker smart weapon, and ground-based sensors for persistent wide-area defense and space surveillance including Early Warning Radar. RMD’s Land Warfare and Air Defense business provides capabilities ranging from precision weapons including Excalibur, Javelin, Stinger and TOW to integrated air and missile defense, including the proven Patriot air and missile defense system, the Guidance Enhanced Missile (GEM-T), the National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS) and the GhostEye family of radars, including the Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS). RMD’s Naval Power business provides advanced sensors, command and control and weapons to protect ships and sailors around the world, including AIM-9X Sidewinder, Tomahawk, Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) and Standard Missile 6 (SM-6) missiles, and the SPY-6 family of radars. RMD’s Strategic Missile Defense business provides technologically advanced sensors, satellites and interceptors including the AN/TPY-2 radar, Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA/IB/IIA missiles and development of future integrated missile defense solutions. RMD’s Advanced Technology business focuses on the development and early introduction of next-generation technologies and systems, including hypersonics, counter-hypersonics, directed energy, advanced weapons and next-generation radars.
RMD serves as a prime contractor or major subcontractor on numerous programs with the DoD, including the U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, Missile Defense Agency (MDA), and U.S. Air Force, and international governments.
In 2022, RMD achieved key advancements in, or received contract awards for, the following programs: the Next Generation Interceptor (NGI); Long Range Stand Off Weapon (LRSO); Hypersonic Air-breathing Weapon Concept (HWAC); the Standard Missile Family (SM-2, SM-3 and SM-6); and AMRAAM. Major new awards in 2022 include a contract to develop the first Hypersonic Attack Cruise Missile (HACM) for the U.S. Air Force; a contract to manufacture and deliver GEM-T for an international customer; a contract for NASAMS for Ukraine; a contract for the SPY-6 Hardware Production and Sustainment base for the U.S. Navy; a contract for Stinger for the U.S. Army and a contract for the SM-3 for the MDA. RMD also received a number of classified contract awards, including a strategic competitive award.
Sales and Customers
We have substantial U.S. government sales, which we conduct through all four of our business segments. RIS and RMD together represent a significant portion of those sales. In addition, as a global company, all four of our business segments have substantial international sales.
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U.S. Government Sales. Our U.S. government sales were as follows:
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Sales to the U.S. government (1)
$30,317 $31,177 $25,962 
Sales to the U.S. government as a percentage of Total Net Sales (1)
45 %48 %46 %
(1)    Excludes foreign military sales through the U.S. government. See “Note 21: Segment Financial Data” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
International Sales. Our sales to international customers, based on customer end use location, were as follows:
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Total international sales (1)
$25,884 $24,377 $22,027 
Total international sales as a percentage of Total Net Sales (1)
39 %38 %39 %
(1)    Includes foreign military sales through the U.S. government. See “Note 21: Segment Financial Data” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Backlog. Backlog, which is equivalent to our remaining performance obligations (RPO) for our sales contracts, represents the aggregate dollar value of firm orders for which products have not been provided or service has not been performed and excludes unexercised contract options and potential orders under ordering-type contracts (e.g., indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) type contracts).
Total backlog was $175 billion and $156 billion as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Of the total RPO as of December 31, 2022, we expect approximately 25% will be recognized as sales over the next 12 months.
Competition
All of our businesses are subject to significant competition. Our businesses compete on a variety of factors such as price, delivery schedule, past performance, reliability, customer service, product development, innovation and technology. Many of our competitors have substantial financial resources and significant technological capabilities. Further, some non-U.S. competitors receive government research and development assistance, marketing subsidies and other assistance for their products beyond the assistance that may be available to us as a U.S. company. In addition, the competitive landscape in the industry segments we serve continues to evolve with trends such as increased vertical integration by competitors and customers and the emergence of more commercial competitors on defense development programs.
Our aerospace businesses compete with numerous domestic and foreign manufacturers, customers and companies that obtain regulatory agency approval to manufacture spare parts. Customer selections of aircraft engines, components and systems can also have a significant impact on future sales of parts and services. In addition, the U.S. government’s and other governments’ policies of purchasing parts from suppliers other than the original equipment manufacturer affect military spare parts sales. Some competitors may offer substantial discounts and other financial incentives, performance and operating cost guarantees, and participation in financing arrangements in an effort to compete for the aftermarket associated with these products.
Our defense businesses compete with numerous U.S. and foreign companies in most defense and government electronics, space, information technology and technical services and support segments. We frequently partner on defense programs with our major suppliers, some of whom are, from time to time, competitors on other programs.
People
As a global technology and innovation-driven company, we depend on a highly skilled workforce. Attracting, developing, advancing and retaining the best talent is critical for us to execute our strategy and grow our business. Individuals with technical, engineering, and science backgrounds, experience, or interests are particularly important for us to succeed in the industries in which we compete.
Due to macroeconomic, industry and labor market conditions, we have experienced and continue to experience a highly competitive environment with respect to hiring and retaining employees with relevant qualifications and experience, particularly personnel with specialized engineering experience and security clearances, which has negatively impacted our operating and financial performance. We continuously monitor labor market conditions and trends and are working to mitigate this issue through talent acquisition, partnership, sourcing and recruiting arrangements, workforce succession planning, talent identification, development and advancement, engagement and recognition programs, and initiatives to attract and rehire former
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employees. However, we expect the current labor market conditions and highly competitive employee hiring and retention environment to continue.
Governance. The Human Capital & Compensation Committee of the RTC Board of Directors oversees the Company’s human capital management.
Workforce Demographics. As of December 31, 2022, our global employee population consisted of a total of approximately 182,000 employees, including approximately 55,000 engineering professionals and approximately 31,000 employees represented by labor unions and other employee representative bodies. Our employees are located in 52 countries, with 70% of our employees located in the U.S.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DE&I). We strive to advance a diverse, equitable and inclusive work environment. We believe a work environment where all individuals are respected, valued and supported enables them to focus on developing the most innovative solutions to our industry’s greatest challenges. We have a DE&I advisory board of senior leaders. We review diversity in talent development and promotion, employee compensation practices and succession planning, and embed DE&I training into our leadership development programs. We have published our U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity EEO-1 report data as part of our Environmental Social Governance Report. We have nine diverse global employee resource groups, which are volunteer-run organizations that are open to all employees and are intended to foster an inclusive culture. We also invest in a more diverse workforce by supporting science, technology, engineering and mathematics initiatives for women and people of color, and providing opportunities and support to military veterans, people with disabilities and the LGBTQ+ community. As of December 31, 2022, women represented 25% of our global workforce and 33% of our global executives, and people of color represented 32% of our U.S. employee population and 17% of our U.S. executives. In addition, based on those employees who self-identified, veterans represented 12% of our U.S. employee population.
Talent Acquisition, Development and Retention; Employee Health and Safety. We continuously monitor the hiring, retention and management of our employees by business and function with a focus to attract, develop, engage, advance and retain the best talent in the industry. We invest in our workforce through internal and external education, training and development programs and tuition assistance benefits. We also provide market competitive compensation and benefits. We recognize and reward performance during our annual review process. We regularly conduct succession planning to ensure that we continue to cultivate the leadership pipeline of talent needed to execute our business strategy. We solicit employee feedback on RTC’s performance as an employer via confidential surveys in the pre-hire, active and exit stages of employment, and use those results to improve our workplace and employee experience. These surveys cover various topics related to employee engagement and satisfaction.
We have industry-leading health and safety programs to help maintain a safe work environment for all employees and mitigate workplace incidents, risks and hazards. We review and monitor our performance and encourage employee input to identify opportunities to reduce incidents. Moreover, we have industry-leading ethics and compliance programs to help mitigate associated employee risks. We also provide health and wellness benefits and support flexible work arrangements for our employees.
Additional information regarding our human capital strategy is available in our “People” section of our Environmental Social Governance Report that can be found on our company website. Information on our website, including our Environmental Social Governance Report, is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
For information on the risks related to our human capital resources, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Research and Development and Operations
Our innovative products and services incorporate advanced technologies. As a result, we invest substantial amounts in research and development (R&D) activities using our own funds and under contractual arrangements with our customers, to enhance existing products and services and develop future technologies to meet our customers’ changing needs and requirements, as well as to address new business opportunities.
We manufacture and service our products in over 229 manufacturing, production or overhaul facilities in approximately 30 countries, including the U.S. In addition, RTC has offices in approximately 10 other countries.
Intellectual Property
We maintain a portfolio of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, licenses and franchises related to our businesses. We rely on a combination of these rights, along with nondisclosure agreements, IT security systems, internal controls and compliance systems and other measures to protect our intellectual property. The U.S. government and foreign governments have licenses to certain of our intellectual property, including certain patents, which are developed or used in the performance of government contracts. Commercial customers also have licenses to certain of our intellectual property largely in connection
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with the sale of our products. While our intellectual property rights in the aggregate are important to the operation of each of our businesses, we do not believe that our business would be materially affected by the expiration of any particular intellectual property right or termination of any particular intellectual property patent license agreement.
Suppliers and Raw Materials
We are dependent upon the availability of materials and major components and the performance of our suppliers and subcontractors. Some of our products require relatively scarce raw materials. In some instances, we depend upon a single source of supply or participate in commodity markets that may be subject to allocations of limited supplies by suppliers. In addition, in some cases, we must comply with specific procurement requirements, which may limit the suppliers and subcontractors we may utilize. Like other users in the U.S., we are largely dependent upon foreign sources for certain raw materials, such as cobalt, tantalum, chromium, rhenium, nickel and titanium. We also have some foreign suppliers as single-source suppliers of components. Global supply chain and labor markets are continuing to experience high levels of disruption, causing significant materials and parts shortages, including raw material, microelectronics and commodity shortages, as well as delivery delays, labor shortages, distribution issues, energy cost increases and price increases. We and many of our suppliers and subcontractors have ceased operations in Russia due to sanctions and have ceased sourcing of components that are subject to sanctions. Other suppliers and subcontractors are located in areas experiencing supply impediments or are at risk of being subjected to trade restrictive actions, due to current geopolitical conditions. In addition, some suppliers and subcontractors have been, or may in the future be, impacted by credit market conditions, including higher interest rates and the availability of credit. Our supplier and subcontractor performance continues to be affected by these issues, and we have experienced difficulties receiving necessary raw materials, components, other supplies and third-party services on a timely basis or at all. Our business has been negatively impacted by the above factors, as well as price increases arising from these issues and ongoing inflation. We work continuously to mitigate the effects of these supply chain issues through targeted activities as well as through our ongoing supply chain programs. We work with our suppliers and subcontractors to assess the causes of performance failures and delays. We are providing our suppliers with access to our contract labor networks to augment supplier workforces, providing suppliers with raw materials and technical support, and leveraging our raw materials contracts to apply our negotiated rates to purchases by our suppliers. We are also working to arrange second and third supply source alternatives and have increased our inventory of available materials and parts. We regularly pursue cost reductions through a number of mechanisms, including consolidating or re-sourcing our purchased parts, expanding use of long-term agreements, reducing the number of suppliers generally (except as described above for important supply alternatives), strategic sourcing in cost competitive regions, competitions among suppliers and other low-cost sourcing initiatives. We also have a number of ongoing programs to manage our dependence on foreign raw material supply and the accompanying risk, including long-term agreements and the conservation of materials through scrap reclamation and new manufacturing processes. In addition, to help address the risk of supplier closings or bankruptcies, we monitor the liquidity of our significant supplier base. For additional information related to supply chain issues, see Item IA. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Other Matters Relating to Our Business
As worldwide businesses, our operations can be affected by a variety of economic, industry and other factors, including those described in this section, in Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” in Item 1. “Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results,” and in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to negatively affect the global economy, our business and operations, the labor market, supply chains, inflation, and the industries in which we operate. Commercial air travel has been significantly disrupted by the pandemic and government, business and individual actions in response. Commercial air travel has not fully returned to pre-COVID-19 levels, although we continue to see signs of ongoing recovery. While we believe that the long-term outlook for the aerospace industry remains positive due to the fundamental drivers of air travel demand, there continues to be uncertainty with respect to when commercial air traffic capacity will fully return to and/or exceed pre-COVID-19 levels. For additional information related to the COVID-19 pandemic, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Regulatory Matters
Our businesses are subject to extensive regulation in the industries we serve. We deal with numerous U.S. government agencies and entities, including but not limited to all of the branches of the DoD, the FAA, and the Department of Homeland Security. Similar government authorities exist in all of the countries in which we do business.
U.S. Government Contracts. As previously discussed, the U.S. government is our largest customer, representing a substantial majority of our total defense sales. U.S. government contracts are subject to termination by the government, either for convenience or for default in the event of our failure to perform under the applicable contract. In the case of a termination for
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convenience, we would normally be entitled to reimbursement for our allowable costs incurred, termination costs and a reasonable profit. If terminated by the government as a result of our default, we could be liable for payments made to us for undelivered goods or services, additional costs the government incurs in acquiring undelivered goods or services from another source and any other damages it suffers. Our U.S. government contracts generally are subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), which sets forth policies, procedures and requirements for the acquisition of goods and services by the U.S. government; department-specific regulations that implement or supplement the FAR, such as the DoD’s Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); and other applicable laws and regulations. These regulations impose a broad range of requirements, many of which are unique to government contracting, including various procurement, import and export, security, contract pricing and cost, contract termination and adjustment, audit and product integrity requirements. A contractor’s failure to comply with these regulations and requirements could result in reductions to the value of contracts, contract modifications or termination, cash withholds on contract payments, forfeiture of profits, and/or the assessment of civil or criminal penalties and fines, and could lead to suspension or debarment, for cause, from U.S. government contracting or subcontracting for a period of time.
For further discussion of risks related to government contracting, including on-going litigation associated with U.S. government audits and investigations, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings” of this Form 10-K and “Note 18: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Commercial Aerospace Product Regulation. Our commercial aerospace products are subject to regulations by the FAA, foreign aviation administration authorities and international regulatory bodies, including on production and quality systems, airworthiness and installation approvals, repair procedures and continuing operational safety. In addition, commercial aerospace regulations and regulator approaches differ across jurisdictions and changes in such regulations and implementing legislation can impact our operations.
Environmental Regulation. Our operations are subject to and affected by environmental regulation by federal, state and local authorities in the U.S. and regulatory authorities with jurisdiction over our international operations, including with respect to the generation, treatment, storage, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances and wastes. We use hazardous substances and generate hazardous wastes in some of our operations and have incurred, and will likely continue to incur, costs associated with environmental compliance activities and management of remediation matters at sites with pollutants. A portion of these costs are eligible for future recovery through the pricing of our products and services under our contracts with the U.S. government. In addition, we have been identified as a potentially responsible party under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, also known as the Superfund law, or state law counterparts to the Superfund law, for a number of sites. The nature and extent of environmental concerns vary from site to site and our share of responsibility varies from sole responsibility to very little responsibility. We also manage various government-owned facilities on behalf of the U.S. government. At such facilities, environmental compliance and remediation costs have historically been primarily the responsibility of the U.S. government, and we have relied upon the U.S. government funding to pay such costs. We do not anticipate that compliance with current provisions or requirements relating to the protection of the environment or that any payments we may be required to make for cleanup liabilities will have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. Environmental matters are further addressed in “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” and “Note 18: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Most of the U.S. laws governing environmental matters include criminal provisions. If we were convicted of a violation of the federal Clean Air Act or Clean Water Act, the facility or facilities involved in the violation could be deemed ineligible to be used in performing any U.S. government contract we are awarded until the Environmental Protection Agency thereafter certifies that the condition giving rise to the violation has been corrected.
In addition, we could be affected by future foreign or domestic laws or regulations imposed in response to concerns over climate change, and we monitor developments in environmental and climate-related laws and regulations and their potential impact to our business and financial condition. Changes in environmental and climate-related laws or regulations, including regulations on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pricing, energy taxes, product efficiency standards, and mandatory disclosure obligations could lead to new or additional investment in product designs and facility upgrades and could increase our operational and environmental compliance expenditures, including increased energy and raw materials costs and costs associated with manufacturing changes.
For further discussion of risks related to environmental and climate matters and other government regulations, see Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Other Applicable Regulations. We conduct our businesses through subsidiaries and affiliates worldwide. As a result, our businesses and operations are subject to both U.S. and non-U.S. government laws, regulations and procurement policies and
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practices, including regulations relating to import-export controls, tariffs, taxes, investment, sanctions, exchange controls, anti-corruption, and cash repatriation. Our international sales are also subject to varying currency, political and economic risks.

Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results
This Form 10-K contains statements which, to the extent they are not statements of historical or present fact, constitute “forward-looking statements” under the securities laws. From time to time, oral or written forward-looking statements may also be included in other information released to the public. These forward-looking statements are intended to provide management’s current expectations or plans for our future operating and financial performance, based on assumptions currently believed to be valid, and are not statements of historical fact. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “believe,” “expect,” “expectations,” “plans,” “strategy,” “prospects,” “estimate,” “project,” “target,” “anticipate,” “will,” “should,” “see,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “goals,” “objectives,” “confident,” “on track” and other words of similar meaning. Forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements relating to future sales, earnings, cash flow, results of operations, uses of cash, share repurchases, tax payments and rates, research and development spending, cost savings, other measures of financial performance, potential future plans, strategies or transactions, credit ratings and net indebtedness, other anticipated benefits to RTC of the Rockwell Collins acquisition, the Raytheon merger or the separation of UTC’s business into three independent, publicly traded companies (UTC, Carrier Global Corporation (Carrier) and Otis Worldwide Corporation (Otis)) (the Separation Transactions), including estimated synergies and customer cost savings resulting from the Raytheon merger and the anticipated benefits and costs of the Separation Transactions, and other statements that are not solely historical facts. All forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. For those statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors include, without limitation:
the effect of changes in economic, capital market and political conditions in the U.S. and globally, such as from the global sanctions and export controls with respect to Russia, and any changes therein, including related to financial market conditions, fluctuations in commodity prices or supply (including energy supply), inflation, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, disruptions in global supply chain and labor markets, and geopolitical risks;
risks associated with U.S. government sales, including changes or shifts in defense spending due to budgetary constraints, spending cuts resulting from sequestration, a continuing resolution, a government shutdown, the debt ceiling or measures taken to avoid default, or otherwise, and uncertain funding of programs;
challenges in the development, production, delivery, and support of RTC advanced technologies and new products and services and the realization of the anticipated benefits (including our expected returns under customer contracts), as well as the challenges of operating in RTC’s highly-competitive industries;
risks relating to RTC’s reliance on U.S. and non-U.S. suppliers and commodity markets, including the effect of sanctions, delays and disruptions in the delivery of materials and services to RTC or its suppliers and price increases;
risks relating to RTC international operations from, among other things, changes in trade policies and implementation of sanctions, foreign currency fluctuations, economic conditions, political factors, sales methods, and U.S. or local government regulations;
the condition of the aerospace industry;
the ability of RTC to attract, train and retain qualified personnel and maintain its culture and high ethical standards, and ability of our personnel to continue to operate our facilities and businesses around the world;
the effect of and risks relating to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on RTC’s business, supply chain, operations and the industries in which it operates, including the decrease in global air travel, and the timing and extent of the recovery from COVID-19;
the scope, nature, timing and challenges of managing acquisitions, investments, divestitures and other transactions, including the realization of synergies and opportunities for growth and innovation, the assumption of liabilities and other risks and incurrence of related costs and expenses;
compliance with legal, environmental, regulatory and other requirements, including, among other things, export and import requirements such as the International Traffic in Arms Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, anti-bribery and anticorruption requirements, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, industrial cooperation agreement obligations, and procurement and other regulations in the U.S. and other countries in which RTC and its businesses operate;
the outcome of pending, threatened and future legal proceedings, investigations and other contingencies, including those related to U.S. government audits and disputes;
factors that could impact RTC’s ability to engage in desirable capital-raising or strategic transactions, including its capital structure, levels of indebtedness, capital expenditures and research and development spending, and the availability of credit, credit market conditions including the cost of debt, and other factors;
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uncertainties associated with the timing and scope of future repurchases by RTC of its common stock or declarations of cash dividends, which may be discontinued, accelerated, suspended or delayed at any time due to various factors, including market conditions and the level of other investing activities and uses of cash;
risks relating to realizing expected benefits from RTC strategic initiatives such as cost reduction, restructuring, digital transformation and other operational initiatives;
risks relating to the integration of the legacy businesses of UTC and Raytheon Company in connection with the Raytheon merger, and the realization of the anticipated benefits of those transactions;
risks of additional tax exposures due to new tax legislation or other developments in the U.S. and other countries in which RTC and its businesses operate;
risks relating to a RTC product safety failure or other failure affecting RTC’s or its customers’ or suppliers’ products or systems;
risks relating to cyber-attacks on RTC’s information technology infrastructure, products, suppliers, customers and partners, threats to RTC facilities and personnel, as well as other events outside of RTC’s control such as public health crises, damaging weather or other acts of nature;
the effect of changes in accounting estimates for our programs on our financial results;
the effect of changes in pension and other postretirement plan estimates and assumptions and contributions;
risks relating to an impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets;
the effects of climate change and changing or new climate-related regulations, customer and market demands, products and technologies; and
the intended qualification of (1) the Raytheon merger as a tax-free reorganization and (2) the Carrier and Otis Separation Transactions and other internal restructurings as tax-free to UTC and former UTC shareowners, in each case, for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
In addition, this Form 10-K includes important information as to risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. See “Note 18: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K, the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the headings “Business Overview,” “Critical Accounting Estimates,” “Results of Operations,” and “Liquidity and Financial Condition,” within Item 7 of this Form 10-K, and the sections titled Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 3. “Legal Proceedings,” of this Form 10-K. This Form 10-K also includes important information as to these factors in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the heading “Government Matters,” within Item 7 of this Form 10-K, and in the “Business” section under the headings “General,” “Business Segments”, “Other Matters Relating to Our Business” and “Regulatory Matters.” The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report or, in the case of any document incorporated by reference, the date of that document. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. Additional information as to factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements is disclosed from time to time in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business, operating results, financial condition and liquidity can be impacted by the factors set forth below, any one of which could cause our actual results to vary materially from recent results or from our anticipated future results.
INDUSTRY RISKS
Our business may be adversely affected by changes in global economic, capital market and political conditions. Our business, operating results, financial condition and liquidity may be adversely affected by changes in global economic conditions, international relations and geopolitical events and actions, including inflation, credit market conditions, levels of consumer and business confidence, commodity (including energy) prices and supply, trade policies, exchange rates, changing policy positions or priorities, levels of government spending and deficits, the threat environment, political conditions, and actual or anticipated default on sovereign debt. The current global supply chain and labor market challenges and inflationary pressures have negatively affected, and we expect will continue to negatively affect, our performance as well as the performance of our suppliers and subcontractors. In addition, due to the nature of our government and commercial aerospace businesses, and their respective customer and supplier contracts, we may be unable to increase our contract value or pricing to offset cost increases, in particular on our fixed price contracts. Our operating profits and margins under our contracts could be adversely affected by these factors. Similarly, interest rate increases have created financial market volatility and could further negatively impact financial markets, lead to an economic downturn or recession, and tighten the availability of, and increase the cost of capital for, the Company, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition and liquidity. Tightening of credit in financial markets also could adversely affect the ability of our customers and suppliers to obtain financing for significant purchases and operations, could result in a decrease in or cancellation of orders for our products and services, could impact the ability of our customers to make payments, and could increase the risk of supplier financial distress. Our global business is also adversely affected by decreases in the general level of economic activity, such as decreases in business and consumer spending, air travel, the financial strength of airlines and business jet operators, and government procurement. In addition, geopolitical risks could affect government priorities, budgets and policies, such as U.S. approvals of our foreign defense sales as well as sanctions and other trade-restrictive activities, which could impact sales of defense and other products and services.
Changes in U.S. government defense spending could negatively impact our financial position, results of operations, liquidity and overall business. U.S. government sales constitute a significant portion of our consolidated sales. Our U.S. government revenues largely result from contracts awarded under various U.S. government programs, primarily defense-related programs with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and a broad range of programs with the U.S. Intelligence Community and other departments and agencies. Changes in U.S. government defense spending for various reasons, including as a result of potential changes in policy or budgetary positions or priorities, could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. Our programs are subject to U.S. government policies, budget decisions and appropriation processes which are driven by numerous factors including U.S. domestic and broader geopolitical events, macroeconomic conditions, and the ability of the U.S. government to enact relevant legislation, such as appropriations bills. In recent years, U.S. government appropriations have been affected by larger U.S. government budgetary issues and related legislation, and the U.S. government has been unable to complete its budget process before the end of its fiscal year, resulting in both governmental shutdowns and continuing resolutions (CRs) providing only enough funds for U.S. government agencies to continue operating at prior-year levels. Further, if the U.S. government debt ceiling is not raised and the national debt reaches the statutory debt ceiling, the U.S. government could default on its debts. As a result, U.S. government defense spending levels are subject to a wide range of outcomes and are difficult to predict beyond the near-term due to numerous factors, including the external threat environment, future governmental priorities and the state of governmental finances. Significant changes in U.S. government defense spending or changes in U.S. government priorities, policies and requirements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
We face risks relating to our U.S. government contracts and the mix of our U.S. government contracts and programs. The termination of one or more of our U.S. government contracts, or the occurrence of performance delays, cost overruns (due to inflation or otherwise), product failures, shortages in materials, components or labor, or contract definitization delays, could negatively impact our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. U.S. government contracts generally permit the government to terminate the contract, in whole or in part, without prior notice, at the U.S. government’s convenience or for default based on performance. If one of our contracts is terminated for convenience, we would generally be entitled to payments for our allowable costs and would receive some allowance for profit on the work performed. If one of our contracts is terminated for default, we would generally be entitled to payments for work accepted by the U.S. government. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and have a negative impact on our ability to obtain future contracts and orders. In addition, we are a subcontractor on some contracts, and the U.S. government could terminate the prime contract for convenience or otherwise, without regard to our performance as a subcontractor. We may not be able to offset lost revenues resulting from contract termination. Moreover, because the funding of U.S. government programs is subject to
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congressional appropriations made on a fiscal year basis even for multi-year programs, programs are often only partially funded initially and may not continue to be funded in future years. Appropriation bills may be delayed, which may result in delays to funding, the collection of receivables and our contract performance due to lack of authorized funds to procure related products and services. The timing of contract definitization can be affected by factors specific to the U.S. government, including staffing limitations. Under certain circumstances, we may use our own funds to meet our customer’s desired delivery dates or other requirements, but we may not be reimbursed. Further, if appropriations for one of our programs become unavailable, reduced or delayed, the U.S. government may terminate for convenience our contract or subcontract under that program. In addition, our U.S. government contracts typically involve the development, application and manufacture of advanced defense and technology systems and products aimed at achieving challenging goals. As a result of untested or unproven technologies, or modified requirements or specifications, we may experience technological and other performance difficulties (including delays, setbacks, cost overruns, or product failures), our attention or resources may be diverted from other projects and our future sales opportunities may be impacted. Additionally, as our customers demand more mature and proven solutions, we may be required to invest in development prior to contract award with no guarantee of award.
Our U.S. government contracts are typically either fixed-priced contracts or cost reimbursement contracts. Fixed-price contracts are predominantly either firm fixed-price (FFP) contracts or fixed-price incentive (FPI) contracts. Under FFP contracts, we receive a fixed price irrespective of the actual costs we incur, and we therefore carry the burden of any cost overruns. Under FPI contracts, we generally share with the U.S. government savings for cost underruns less than target costs and expenses for cost overruns exceeding target costs up to a negotiated ceiling price. We carry the entire burden of cost overruns exceeding the ceiling price amount under FPI contracts. Under cost reimbursable contracts, we are reimbursed for allowable costs and paid a fixed or performance-based fee, but we are generally not reimbursed for unauthorized costs exceeding a cost ceiling amount or costs not allowable under the contract or applicable regulations. If we are unable to control costs or if our initial cost estimates are incorrect, our profitability could be negatively affected, particularly under fixed-price development contracts. We may also experience cost underruns which would reduce contract value and related expected revenues, and we may be unable to expand the contract scope or secure additional work to offset the resulting lost revenues. While contracts for development programs with complex design and technical challenges are typically cost reimbursable, they can be FFP or FPI, which can significantly increase our risk of a potential negative profit adjustment, as development contracts by nature involve elements that have not been undertaken before and, thus, are highly subject to future unexpected cost growth. In addition, other contracts in backlog are for the transition from development to production, which includes starting and stabilizing a manufacturing and test line while the final design is still being validated. Moreover, over the past several years, the DoD has increased its use of Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contracts, under which it awards certain prototypes, research and production contracts without all of the procurement requirements that typically apply to DoD contracts, including justification of sole source awards. OTAs may use fixed-price contracting during all phases of the contract, or mandated contract cost sharing (e.g., one-third of program costs). They may also require non-traditional subcontractor participation and impose other requirements that differ from our other DoD contracts. Our business may be negatively impacted if we are unable to perform on our OTA contracts, including any applicable non-traditional requirements. In addition, in order to support U.S. government priorities, we may begin performance prior to completing contract negotiations for an undefinitized contract action with a not-to-exceed price. Uncertainties in final contract price, specifications and terms, or loss of negotiating leverage associated with particularly long delays in contract definitization may negatively affect our profitability. Our U.S. government contracts also require us to comply with extensive and evolving procurement rules and regulations and subject us to potential U.S. government audits, investigations, and disputes. We are also involved in programs that are classified by the U.S. government, which have security requirements that place limits on our ability to discuss our performance on these programs, including any risks, disputes and claims.
Our international business is subject to economic, regulatory, competition and other risks. Our international sales and operations are subject to risks associated with political and economic factors, regulatory requirements, competition and other risks. A significant portion of our sales are international, including U.S. export sales. Our non-U.S. operations transactions may be denominated in local currencies. Foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations (including their impact on supplier prices) may negatively affect demand for our products and our reported profits, as well as our operating margins. The majority of our commercial aerospace sales are in U.S. Dollars, while the majority of their non-U.S. costs are incurred in the applicable local currency. Pratt & Whitney Canada is especially susceptible to fluctuations in exchange rates for this reason. In addition, because our financial statements are denominated in U.S. Dollars, currency fluctuations may cause translation gains or losses for non-U.S. operating unit financial statements.
Our international sales and operations are also subject to risks associated with local government laws, regulations and policies, including with respect to investments, taxation, exchange controls, capital controls, employment regulations and repatriation of earnings. Differing legal systems, customs and contract laws and regulations pose additional risk. International transactions may include contractual terms that differ from those of similar contracts in the U.S. or that may be interpreted differently in foreign countries. In addition, in certain foreign countries, we engage foreign non-employee representatives and consultants for
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international sales and teaming with international subcontractors, partners and suppliers for international programs. While we have robust policies and controls in place, these engagements expose us to various challenges including risks associated with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and local antibribery laws and regulations. From time to time, we have disputes with such representatives regarding claimed commissions and other matters which can result in litigation or arbitration. In addition, we face risks related to the unintended or unauthorized use of our products.
Our international business faces substantial competition from both U.S. companies and foreign companies. In some instances, foreign companies may be owned by foreign governments or may receive loans, marketing subsidies and other assistance from their governments that may not be available to U.S. companies or our foreign subsidiaries. In addition, foreign companies may be subject to fewer restrictions on technology transfer than U.S. companies.
Our international contracts, particularly for sales of defense products and services, may include offset or industrial cooperation obligations requiring specific local purchases, manufacturing agreements, technology transfer agreements or financial support obligations, sometimes in the form of in-country industrial participation (ICIP) agreements. Approvals of offset or ICIP thresholds and requirements may be subjective and time-consuming and may delay contract awards. Certain customers’ demands are increasing for greater offset or ICIP commitment levels, higher-value content, including the transfer of technologies and capabilities, and local production and economic development.
As a result of the above factors, we could experience financial penalties and award and funding delays on international programs, our profitability on these programs could be negatively affected, and we could incur losses on these programs that could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Geopolitical factors and changes in policies and regulations could adversely affect our business. Our international sales and operations are sensitive to changes in foreign national priorities, foreign government budgets, and regional and local political and economic factors, including volatility in energy prices or supply, political or civil unrest, changes in threat environments and political relations, geopolitical uncertainties, and changes in U.S. foreign policy. Our international sales and operations are also sensitive to changes in foreign government laws, regulations and policies, including those related to tariffs, sanctions, embargoes, export and import controls and other trade restrictions. Events such as increased trade restrictions or retaliatory trade policies, renegotiation of existing trade agreements, or regime change can affect demand for our products and services, the competitive position of our products, our supply chain, and our ability to manufacture or sell products in certain countries. Further, operations in emerging market countries are subject to additional risks, including volatility in gross domestic product and rates of economic growth, government instability, cultural differences (such as employment and business practices), the imposition of exchange and capital controls, and risks associated with exporting components manufactured in those countries for incorporation into finished products completed in other countries. While these factors and their impact are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
In addition, given the role of our defense businesses in the support of the national security interests of the U. S. and its allies, we are subject to risks and uncertainties relating to policies of the U.S. and its allies, as well as other countries, including those that are or become regarded as potential adversaries or threats. We engage in both direct commercial sales, which generally require U.S. government licenses and approvals, as well as foreign military sales, which are government-to-government transactions initiated by, and carried out at the direction of, the U.S. government. Changes in budgets and spending levels, policies, or priorities, which are subject to geopolitical risks and threats, may impact our defense businesses, including the timing of and delays in U.S. government licenses and approvals for sales, the risk of sanctions or other restrictions, as well as potential human rights issues associated with the use of our defense products. These risks and uncertainties may directly or indirectly impact our commercial businesses as well.
Of note, China previously announced it may take measures against Raytheon Technologies Corporation (RTC) in connection with certain foreign military sales to Taiwan involving RTC products and services. In addition, China has indicated that it decided to sanction our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Gregory Hayes, in connection with another potential foreign military sale to Taiwan involving RTC products and services. RTC is not aware of any specific sanctions against Mr. Hayes or RTC, or the nature or timing of any future potential sanctions or countermeasures. If China were to impose sanctions or take other regulatory action against RTC, our suppliers, affiliates or partners, it could potentially disrupt our business operations. The impact of potential sanctions or other actions by China cannot be determined at this time. From time to time, our businesses have sold, and are expected to sell in the future, additional defense products to Taiwan, and we are unable to determine the potential impact, if any, of any future sanctions or other actions by China in response to these sales. Moreover, the Chinese government has generally expanded its ability to restrict China-related import, export and investment activities, which may have an adverse impact on our ability to conduct business or sell our commercial aerospace products in China. In addition, in response to the Russian military’s invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, the U.S. government and the governments of various jurisdictions in which we operate, including Canada, the United Kingdom, the European Union, and others, have
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imposed broad economic sanctions and export controls targeting specific industries, entities and individuals in Russia. The Russian government has implemented similar counter-sanctions and export controls targeting specific industries, entities and individuals in the U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate, including certain members of the Company’s management team and Board of Directors. These government measures, among other limitations, restrict transactions involving various Russian banks and financial institutions and impose enhanced export controls limiting transfers of various goods, software and technologies to and from Russia, including broadened export controls specifically targeting the aerospace sector. These measures have adversely affected and could continue to adversely affect the Company and/or our supply chain, business partners or customers.
Our financial performance is dependent on the condition of the aerospace industry. Our aerospace businesses constitute a substantial portion of our financial results, and the performance of those businesses is directly tied to economic conditions in the commercial aerospace industry, which is cyclical in nature. Capital spending and demand for aircraft engines, aerospace products and component aftermarket parts and services by commercial airlines, lessors, other aircraft operators and aircraft manufacturers are influenced by a wide variety of factors, including current and predicted traffic levels, load factors, aircraft fuel prices, labor issues, airline consolidation, bankruptcies and restructuring activities, competition, the retirement of older aircraft, regulatory changes, terrorism and related safety concerns, general economic conditions, tightening of credit in financial markets, corporate profitability, cost reduction efforts and remaining performance obligations levels. Any of these factors could reduce the sales and margins of our aerospace businesses. Other factors, including future terrorist actions, aviation safety concerns, pandemic health issues or major natural disasters, could also dramatically reduce the demand for commercial air travel, which could negatively impact the sales and margins of our aerospace businesses. Additionally, because a substantial portion of product deliveries to commercial aerospace customers are scheduled for delivery in the future, changes in economic conditions may cause customers to request that firm orders be rescheduled or canceled. At times, our aerospace businesses also enter into firm fixed-price or cost-share development contracts with customers, which may require us to bear cost overruns related to unforeseen technical and design challenges that arise during the development and early production stages of the program. Spare parts sales and aftermarket service trends are affected by similar factors, including usage, pricing, technological improvements, regulatory changes and the retirement of older aircraft. Furthermore, because of the lengthy research and development cycle involved in bringing products in these business segments to market, we cannot predict the economic conditions that will exist when any new product is ready to enter into service. A reduction in spending in the commercial aviation industry could have a significant effect on the demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
We design, manufacture and service products that incorporate advanced technologies; the introduction of new products and technologies involves risks, and we may not realize the degree or timing of benefits initially anticipated. The design, development, production, sale and support of innovative commercial aerospace and defense systems and products involves advanced technologies. We invest substantial amounts in research and development efforts to pursue advancements in a wide range of technologies, products and services aimed at meeting the ever-evolving product, program and service needs of our customers. Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of our investments depends on a variety of factors, including meeting development, production, certification and regulatory approval schedules; receiving regulatory approvals; execution of internal and external performance plans; achieving cost and production efficiencies; availability and quality of supplier- and internally-produced parts and materials; availability of supplier and internal facility capacity to perform maintenance, repair and overhaul services; availability of test equipment; development of complex software; hiring and training of qualified personnel; identification of emerging technological trends for our target end-customers; the level of customer interest in new technologies and products and customer acceptance of our products and technologies. For example, our customers manufacture or acquire end products and systems that incorporate certain of our products. These end products and systems may also incorporate additional technologies manufactured by third parties and involve additional risks and uncertainties. As a result, the performance and industry acceptance of these larger systems and end products could affect the level of customer interest in and acceptance of our products in the marketplace. In addition, many of our products must adhere to strict regulatory and market-driven safety and performance standards in a variety of jurisdictions. The evolving nature of these standards, along with the long duration of development, production and aftermarket support programs, creates uncertainty regarding program profitability, particularly with our aircraft engine products. Development efforts divert resources from other potential investments in our businesses, and these efforts may not lead to the development of new technologies or products on a timely basis or meet the needs of our customers as fully as competitive offerings. In addition, the industries for our products or products that incorporate our technologies may not develop or grow as we anticipate. We or our customers, suppliers or subcontractors may encounter difficulties in developing and producing new products and services, and may not realize the degree or timing of benefits initially anticipated or may otherwise suffer significant adverse financial consequences. Due to the design complexity of our products or those of our customers or third party manufacturers that incorporate our products into theirs or our customers’ products, we may experience delays in completing the development and introduction of new products or we may experience the suspension of production after these products enter into service due to safety concerns. Delays and/or
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suspension of production could result in increased development costs or deflect resources from other projects. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
In particular, Pratt & Whitney is currently producing and delivering the Geared Turbofan engine to power various aircraft. The level of orders received for the Geared Turbofan family of engines, coupled with a requirement to achieve mature production levels in a very short time frame, require significant additional manufacturing and supply chain capacity. If any of our production ramp-up efforts are delayed, if suppliers cannot timely deliver or perform to our standards, and/or if we identify or experience issues with in-service engines, we may not meet customers’ delivery schedules, which could result in material additional costs, including liquidated damages or other liabilities that could be assessed under existing contracts.
Competition may reduce our revenues and limit our future opportunities. We operate in highly competitive industries and our competitors may have more extensive or more specialized engineering, manufacturing, marketing and servicing capabilities than we do. Our contracts are typically awarded on a competitive basis. Our bids are based in part upon the cost to provide the products and services. If we fail to accurately estimate these costs, the profitability of our contracts may be adversely affected. In addition, we may face customer-directed cost reduction targets that could have a material adverse effect on the profitability of our contracts if these targets are not achieved when required. We have also experienced highly competitive pricing, in which a bidder may anticipate making a substantial investment in a program in order to win the work. Moreover, bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards are frequent with respect to DoD awards in particular. Generally, a bid protest will delay the start of contract activities, delay earnings, and could result in the award decision being overturned and require a re-bid of the contract. Highly competitive activity within the commercial aerospace industry has included substantial discounts and other financial incentives, performance and operating cost guarantees, and participation in financing arrangements, in order to secure both new engine business and the aftermarket revenues associated with these products. Further, our competitors, including our customers, may develop competing technologies which gain industry acceptance in advance of or instead of our products, or meet particular in-demand technological needs before us or with technology that is superior to our existing or new technologies. In addition, our competitors or customers might develop new technologies or offerings that might cause our existing technologies and offerings to become obsolete or otherwise decrease demand for our offerings. In addition, the possibility exists that competitors or customers will develop aftermarket services and parts for our products that attract customers and adversely impact our return on investment on new products. We also anticipate companies continuing to enhance their competitive position against our defense businesses as a result of continued domestic and cross-border defense industry consolidation and the expansion of competitors’ capabilities throughout the supply chain through vertical integration. We are also facing heightened competition domestically and internationally from foreign and multinational firms. Additionally, some customers, including the DoD, are increasingly turning to commercial contractors, rather than traditional defense contractors, for space-related technologies and for information technology and other support work. If we are unable to continue to compete successfully against our current or future competitors in our core businesses, we may experience declines in revenues and industry segment share which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected our business, and we continue to face risks associated with it. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to negatively affect the global economy, our business and operations, and the industries in which we operate. The pandemic and government, business and individual actions in response, including lockdowns, quarantines, border closings and other travel restrictions and requirements, remote working, facilities closures and reduced business and leisure travel, led to significant declines in demand for commercial air travel in 2020 and 2021 and, therefore, for our commercial aerospace products and services. While we have seen signs of ongoing recovery in the overall demand for commercial air travel and currently expect that recovery to continue, some commercial aviation segments have recovered less quickly than others, and it remains uncertain when commercial air traffic will fully return to and/or exceed pre-pandemic levels. The resulting financial impact is highly uncertain and subject to a wide range of factors and future developments. In addition, a resurgence of the pandemic (including COVID-19 variants), regional lockdowns or other negative developments associated with the pandemic could hinder or reverse the commercial air traffic recovery. Negative developments concerning the effect of the pandemic or additional variants, the efficacy and acceptance of vaccines, new or continued actions to contain the pandemic’s spread or treat its impact, and governmental, business and individual actions taken in response to the pandemic (lockdowns, quarantines, border closings and other travel restrictions and requirements, remote working, facilities closures, and reduced business and leisure travel patterns and work environments) could create significant business disruption for us and our suppliers, subcontractors and customers, exacerbate existing supply chain and labor shortages, redirect government funds and decrease defense budgets, and negatively affect global economic conditions. These factors could hinder or delay our production capabilities, impede our ability to perform on our obligations to our customers, result in increased costs to us and decreased demand for our products and services, and could negatively affect our performance on our customer
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contracts and our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. The ultimate duration and financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic remains unknown at this time.
OPERATIONAL RISKS
We depend on the availability of materials and performance of our suppliers, and the impacts of global supply chain and labor market disruptions on our supply chain have negatively affected and will continue to negatively affect our business. Our performance requires a variety of raw materials, supplier-provided parts, components, sub-systems and contract manufacturing services, and we rely on U.S. and non-U.S. suppliers (including third-party manufacturing suppliers, subcontractors and service providers) and commodity markets for these materials and services. In some instances, we depend upon a single source of supply, manufacturing, services support or assembly, or participate in commodity markets that may be subject to allocations of limited supplies by suppliers. In addition, our defense businesses are subject to specific procurement requirements that limit the types of materials they use. Our defense businesses also must require suppliers to comply with various DoD requirements, including cybersecurity requirements, any of which requirements may further limit the suppliers and subcontractors they may utilize. Identifying and qualifying second- or third- source suppliers can be difficult, time-consuming and may result in increased costs.
In addition, global supply chain and labor markets are continuing to experience high levels of disruption, causing significant materials and parts shortages, as well as delivery delays, labor shortages, distribution issues, energy cost increases and price increases. Current geopolitical conditions, including sanctions and other trade restrictive activities and strained intercountry relations, are contributing to these issues. Certain of our suppliers and subcontractors have been unable to hire and retain sufficient qualified personnel for their performance. We and our suppliers and subcontractors have also experienced difficulties in procuring necessary raw materials and components, including microelectronics. All of the above have contributed to price increases. These issues have led to significant supplier and subcontractor performance failures and delays. As a result of these various problems, we have had difficulties receiving necessary materials, components, other supplies and third-party services timely or at all, which have negatively impacted production flow in our factories, hindered our ability to perform on our commitments to customers and negatively affected our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. Our supply costs have increased due to the above factors. Continuing high inflation has exacerbated these increases and increased our operating costs. In addition, we are largely dependent upon foreign sources for certain raw materials, such as cobalt, tantalum, chromium, rhenium, nickel and titanium. Moreover, some of our single-source components are sourced from foreign countries. Some raw materials and components have been in the past sourced from areas now under sanctions, such as Russia, or are currently sourced from areas which are at risk of sanctions or other trade restrictive actions, such as China. We work continuously to mitigate the effects of these supply chain issues and risks, including providing raw materials and technical support to our suppliers and subcontractors, as well as providing them with access to our contract labor networks to augment supplier and subcontractor workforces; seeking alternate supply sources; increasing our inventory of available materials and parts; pursuing various cost reductions such as long-term agreements; and leveraging our raw materials supply contracts to apply our negotiated rates to our suppliers’ purchases.
The timing of the impacts of these supply chain risks and issues and our ability to mitigate them are uncertain and difficult to predict. However, we expect the current supply chain, labor availability and price issues, and their negative impacts on our business, to continue. In particular, we expect to experience prolonged delays for certain critical component parts and sub-systems. Furthermore, the existing supply chain and labor market issues could be compounded by other events, such as an economic downturn; supplier capacity constraints for other reasons; supplier quality issues (for example, defects or fraudulent parts); supplier closing, bankruptcy or financial difficulties; price increases for various reasons; worsening shortages of raw materials or commodities; and energy supply constraints, including as a result of war or other geopolitical actions, natural disaster (including the effects of climate change), health pandemic or other business continuity events, or transport and distribution issues, any of which could further negatively impact our ability to meet our commitments to customers or increase our operating costs and therefore incrementally affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
Due to the nature of our products and services, a product safety failure or other failure affecting our or our customers’ or suppliers’ products or systems could seriously harm our business. Our products and services are highly sophisticated and specialized, involve complex advanced technologies, are often integrated with third-party products and services and are utilized for specific purposes that require precision, reliability and durability. Many of our products and services include both hardware and software that involve industrial machinery and intricate aviation and defense systems, including commercial and military jet engines, power and control systems and other aircraft parts, air and missile defense systems, and military sensors and command and control systems. Technical, mechanical and other failures may occur from time to time, whether as a result of manufacturing or design defect, operational process or production issue attributable to us, our customers, suppliers, third party integrators or others. In addition, our products could fail as a result of cyber-attacks, such as those that seize control and result in misuse or unintended use of our products, or other intentional acts. The impact of a catastrophic product or system failure or similar event affecting our or our customers’ or suppliers’ products or services could be significant, and could result in injuries
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or death, property damage, loss of strategic capabilities, loss of intellectual property, loss of reputation, and other significant negative effects. A product or system failure could lead to negative publicity, a diversion of management attention and damage to our reputation that could reduce demand for our products and services. It could also result in product recalls and product liability and warranty claims (including claims related to the safety or reliability of our products) and related expenses, other service, repair and maintenance costs, significant damages and other costs, including fines and other remedies and regulatory and environmental liabilities. We may also incur increased costs, delayed payments, reputational harm or lost equipment or services revenue in connection with a significant issue with a third party’s product with which our products are integrated. Further, our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all related costs and we may not otherwise be fully indemnified for them. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
We depend on the recruitment and retention of qualified personnel, and our failure to attract, train and retain such personnel could seriously harm our business. Due to the specialized nature of our business, our future performance is highly dependent upon the continued services of our key technical personnel and executive officers, and the hiring, development and retention of qualified technical, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, sales and management personnel for our operations. Our defense business in particular requires qualified personnel with security clearances due to our classified programs. In addition, we experienced personnel reductions when the COVID-19 pandemic caused significant declines in demand for our commercial aerospace products and services, but current demand for our products and services across our businesses has created a significant need for us to hire additional and replacement personnel. Moreover, a significant percentage of our current workforce is nearing or eligible for retirement. To the extent that we lose experienced personnel in the future, it is critical that we develop other employees, hire new qualified personnel and successfully manage the transfer of knowledge.
Current macroeconomic, industry and labor market conditions have exacerbated an already highly competitive market for hiring and retaining employees with relevant qualifications and experience. There is an ongoing labor shortage, particularly for highly qualified personnel including engineers, skilled laborers and security clearance holders. Labor market trends also include high attrition and wage inflation, and some candidates and new personnel may have different expectations from our current workforce. As a result of the above factors, we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, significant difficulties in hiring and retaining personnel with relevant qualifications and experience, which has negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact, our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
In addition, certain existing personnel may be required to receive various security clearances and substantial training in order to work on certain programs or perform certain tasks. Necessary security clearances may be delayed, which may impact our ability to perform on our U.S. government contracts. We also may not be successful in training or developing qualified personnel with the requisite relevant skills or security clearances. Loss of key employees, increased attrition for various reasons, failure to adequately train newly hired employees, delays in receiving required security clearances, or delays in hiring key personnel could also seriously harm our business.
Moreover, we believe that a critical element of our ability to successfully attract, train and retain qualified personnel is our corporate culture, which we believe fosters innovation, collaboration, diversity and inclusion, and a focus on execution, all in an environment of high ethical standards. Our global operations may present challenges in maintaining these important aspects of our corporate culture, and a failure to maintain our corporate culture could negatively impact us. Further, we rely on our key personnel to lead with integrity and to meet our high ethical standards that promote excellent performance and cultivate diversity, equity and inclusion. To the extent any of our key personnel were to behave in a way that is inconsistent with our values, including with respect to product safety or quality, legal or regulatory compliance, financial reporting or people management, we could experience a materially adverse impact to our reputation and our operating results. In addition, failure or perceived failure to meet increasing stakeholder expectations on environmental, social and governance (ESG) matters could harm our reputation and impact demand for our products and services.
Our business and financial performance may be adversely affected by cyber-attacks on information technology infrastructure and products. Our business may be impacted by disruptions to our own or third-party information technology (IT) infrastructure, which could result from, among other causes, cyber-attacks on or failures of such infrastructure or compromises to its physical security. We also encounter attempts to infiltrate our products and services and sabotage or disable their use by our customers. Cybersecurity threats are evolving and include, but are not limited to, both attacks on our IT infrastructure and attacks on the IT infrastructure of our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and other third parties with whom we do business routinely, both on premises and in the cloud, attempting to gain unauthorized access to our confidential or other proprietary information, classified information, or information relating to our employees, customers and other third parties, or to disrupt our systems or the systems of third parties. Cybersecurity threats also include attacks targeting the security, integrity and/or availability of the hardware, software and information installed, stored or transmitted in our products, including after the purchase of those products and when they are incorporated into third-party products, facilities or infrastructure. We are also exposed to the risk of insider threat attacks. Any such attacks could disrupt our systems or those of third parties (including
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mission critical systems), impact business operations, result in unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information, and corrupt our data or that of third parties. We have experienced cyber-based attacks, and due to the evolving threat landscape, may continue to experience them going forward, potentially with more frequency. The threats we face are continuous and evolving, and vary from attacks common to most industries to more advanced and persistent, highly organized adversaries, including nation states, which target us and other defense contractors. We continue to make investments and adopt measures designed to enhance our protection, detection, response, and recovery capabilities, and to mitigate potential risks to our technology, products, services and operations from potential cybersecurity threats. However, given the unpredictability, nature and scope of cyber-attacks, it is possible that we are unable to defend against all cyber attacks, that potential vulnerabilities could go undetected and persist in the environment for an extended period, or that we may otherwise be unable to mitigate customer losses and other potential consequences of these attacks. In addition, some products and services that we provide to customers, particularly those related to public security, may raise potential liabilities related to privacy and intellectual property. In some cases we must rely on the safeguards put in place by our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and other third parties to protect against and report cyber threats. We could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, the compromise of confidential information, intellectual property or otherwise protected information, misappropriation, destruction or corruption of data, security breaches, other manipulation or improper use of our or third-party systems, networks or products, financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business, or potential liability, penalties, fines and/or damage to our reputation. Any of these could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. Some of these risks may be heightened due to the Company and its suppliers and other third parties operating with a significant number of employees working remotely. Due to the evolving nature of such risks, the impact of any potential incident cannot be predicted. Further, our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all related costs and we may not otherwise be fully indemnified for them.
Exports and imports of certain of our products are subject to various export control, sanctions and import regulations and may require authorization from regulatory agencies of the U.S. or other countries. We must comply with various laws and regulations relating to the export and import of products, services and technology from and into the U.S. and other countries having jurisdiction over our operations. In the U.S., these laws and regulations include, among others, the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) administered by the U.S. Department of State, embargoes and sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury, and import regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Justice. Certain of our products, services and technologies have military or strategic applications and are on the U.S. Munitions List of the ITAR, the Commerce Control List of the EAR or are otherwise subject to the EAR, and/or the U.S. Munitions Import List and we are required to obtain licenses and authorizations from the appropriate U.S. government agencies before selling these products outside of the U.S. or importing these products into the U.S. U.S. foreign policy or foreign policy of other licensing jurisdictions may affect the licensing process or otherwise prevent us from engaging in business dealings with certain individuals, entities or countries. Any failure by us, our customers or our suppliers to comply with these laws and regulations could result in civil or criminal penalties, fines, seizure of our products, adverse publicity, restrictions on our ability to export or import our products, or the suspension or debarment from doing business with the U.S. government. Moreover, any changes in export control, sanctions or import regulations may further restrict the export or import of our products or services, and the possibility of such changes requires constant monitoring to ensure we remain compliant. Our ability to obtain required licenses and authorizations on a timely basis or at all is subject to risks and uncertainties, including changing U.S. government laws, regulations or foreign policies, delays in Congressional action, or geopolitical and other factors. If we are not successful in obtaining or maintaining the necessary licenses or authorizations in a timely manner, our sales relating to those approvals may be prevented or delayed, and revenue and profit previously recognized may be reversed. Any restrictions on the export or import of our products or product lines could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
Our business and financial performance may be adversely affected by threats to our physical security and other events outside our control. We could encounter threats to our physical security, including our facilities and personnel, and threats from, workplace violence, civil unrest, terrorism or similar acts, any of which could disrupt our business. In addition, our business, and the businesses of our suppliers, subcontractors and service providers and customers, could be disrupted by public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics (including the COVID-19 pandemic), damaging weather or other acts of nature, cyber-attacks on IT infrastructure and products or other events outside of our control. Any such business disruption could subject us to production downtimes, operational delays, other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers, financial losses from remedial actions, the diversion of management’s attention and resources, or loss of business, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. The impact of any such business disruption is difficult to predict.
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We depend on our intellectual property and have access to certain third party intellectual property; infringement or failure to protect our intellectual property or access to third party intellectual property could adversely affect our future growth and success. We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, nondisclosure agreements, IT security systems, internal controls and compliance systems and other measures to protect our intellectual property. We also rely on nondisclosure agreements, confidentiality obligations in contracts, IT security systems and other measures to protect certain customer and supplier information and intellectual property that we have in our possession or to which we have access. The U.S. government and foreign governments have licenses under certain of our intellectual property, including certain patents, which are developed or used in performance of government contracts. Governments may use or authorize others (including our competitors) to use such patents and intellectual property for government and other purposes. Governments may challenge the sufficiency of intellectual property rights we have granted in government contracts and attempt to obtain greater rights, which could reduce our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and to compete. In some instances, we have augmented our technology base by licensing the proprietary intellectual property of others. Intellectual property obtained from third parties is also subject to challenge, invalidation, misappropriation or circumvention by third parties. In addition, we may not be able to obtain necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms. In other instances, our ability to procure and perform government contracts requires us to obtain certain rights in the intellectual property of others through government grants. Governments may deny us the right to obtain such rights in the intellectual property of others, which may affect our ability to perform government contracts. Moreover, our efforts to protect intellectual property and proprietary rights may not be sufficient. We cannot be sure that our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents to us, that patents issued to or licensed by us in the past or in the future will not be challenged or circumvented by competitors, or that these patents will be found to be valid or sufficiently broad to preclude our competitors from introducing technologies similar to those covered by our patents and patent applications. Our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights may be limited in certain countries outside the U.S. In addition, we may be the target of competitor or other third-party patent enforcement actions seeking substantial monetary damages or seeking to prevent our sale and marketing of certain of our products or services. Our competitive position also may be adversely impacted by limitations on our ability to obtain possession of, and ownership of necessary licenses concerning, data important to the development or provision of our products or service offerings, or by limitations on our ability to restrict the use by others of data related to our products or services. We may also be subject to disruptions, losses and liability resulting from various cybersecurity attacks or information technology failures, as described above. Any of these events or factors could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, subject us to judgments, penalties and significant litigation costs, or temporarily or permanently disrupt our sales and marketing of the affected products or services. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
LEGAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
As a U.S. government contractor, we are subject to risks relating to U.S. government audits, investigations, and disputes. We are subject to U.S. government investigations relating to our U.S. government contracts. Such U.S. government investigations often take years to complete and could result in administrative, civil or criminal liabilities, including repayments, fines, treble and other damages, forfeitures, restitution or penalties, or could lead to suspension or debarment of U.S. government contracting or of export privileges. For instance, if we or one of our business units were charged with wrongdoing in connection with a U.S. government investigation (including fraud, or violation of certain environmental or export laws, as further described below), the U.S. government could suspend us from bidding on or receiving awards of new U.S. government contracts pending the completion of legal proceedings. If convicted or found liable, the U.S. government could fine and debar us from new U.S. government contracting for a period generally not to exceed three years and could void any contracts found to be tainted by fraud. We also could suffer reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us, even if such allegations are later determined to be unsubstantiated. Further, our U.S. government contracts are subject to audit and we have received audit reports recommending the reduction of certain contract prices because, for example, cost or pricing data disclosures or cost accounting practices used to price and negotiate those contracts may not have conformed to government regulations. Some of these audit reports recommend that certain payments be repaid, delayed, or withheld, and may involve substantial amounts, which could, if the audit reports’ theories were to prevail in litigation, also have future impacts such as increasing the costs absorbed by our commercial businesses. We have made voluntary refunds in those cases we believe appropriate, have settled some allegations and, in some cases, continue to negotiate and/or litigate. We may be, and have been, required to make significant payments into escrow of disputed liabilities while the related litigation is pending. If the litigation is resolved in our favor, any such payments will be returned to us with interest. The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) and the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) also review the adequacy of and our compliance with our internal control systems and policies, including our accounting, purchasing, government property, estimating, earned value management and material management accounting systems. Our final allowable incurred costs for each year are subject to audit and have from time to time resulted in disputes between us and the U.S. government, including DCMA claims to recover payments for alleged noncompliance with cost accounting standards. In some cases, the Department of Justice (DOJ) has convened grand juries to
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investigate possible irregularities in our costs. Any costs found to be improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed by the U.S. government or must be refunded by us to the U.S. government if already reimbursed. An adverse outcome of any audit or investigation could result in civil and criminal penalties and fines, which could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. In addition, if allegations of impropriety were made against us, we could suffer serious reputational harm, which could negatively affect our financial position, results of operations and liquidity.
We are subject to litigation, environmental, anti-corruption and other legal and compliance risks. We are subject to a variety of litigation and legal compliance risks. These risks relate to, among other things, product safety and reliability, personal injuries, intellectual property rights, contract-related claims, government contracts, taxes, environmental matters, export control, employment matters, competition laws and laws governing improper business practices. We or one of our businesses could be charged with wrongdoing as a result of such matters. If convicted or found liable, we could be subject to significant fines, penalties, repayments, or other damages (in certain cases, treble damages). Product recalls and product liability and warranty claims can result in significant damages and costs, including fines as well as other harm to our business as discussed above. As a global business, we are subject to complex laws and regulations in the U.S. and in other countries in which we operate. Those laws and regulations may be interpreted in different ways. They may also change from time to time, as may related interpretations and other guidance. Changes in laws or regulations could result in higher expenses. Uncertainty relating to laws or regulations may also affect how we conduct our operations and structure our investments and could limit our ability to enforce our rights.
We use hazardous substances and generate hazardous wastes in our operations. As a result, we are subject to potentially material liabilities related to personal injuries or property damage that may be caused by hazardous substance releases and exposures. Personal injury lawsuits may involve individual and purported class actions alleging that contaminants originating from our current or former products or operating facilities caused or contributed to medical conditions, including cancers incurred by employees, former employees, third-parties’ employees or residents in the area, and environmental damage or diminution of real estate values. For example, we are investigating and remediating contamination related to past practices at a number of properties and, in some cases, have been named as a defendant in related “toxic tort” claims. We are also subject to laws and regulations that: (1) impose requirements for the proper management, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes; (2) restrict air and water emissions from our operations (including U.S. government-owned facilities we manage); and (3) require maintenance of a safe workplace. These laws and regulations can lead to substantial fines and criminal sanctions for violations, and may require the installation of costly equipment or operational changes to limit pollution emissions, decrease the likelihood of accidental hazardous substance releases, and/or reduce the risks of injury to people. We incur, and expect to continue to incur, capital and other expenditures to comply with these laws and regulations. A criminal violation of certain U.S. environmental statutes such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act could result in suspension, debarment or disqualification by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A facility determined to be in violation of the criminal provisions of these statutes can be prohibited from performing any U.S. government contract work until the violation has been corrected and the EPA approves the reinstatement of the facility. Even in litigation where we believe our liability is remote, there is a risk that a negative finding or decision in a matter involving multiple plaintiffs or a purported class action could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity, in particular with respect to environmental claims in regions where we have, or previously had, significant operations. In addition, new laws, regulations, or governmental policies, sudden changes in the interpretation and enforcement of existing laws and regulations, the discovery of previously unknown contamination, or the imposition of new clean-up standards could require us to incur additional costs in the future that would have a negative effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
In addition, the FCPA and other anti-bribery and -corruption laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to U.S. and non-U.S. officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. These laws apply to companies, individual directors, officers, employees and agents. U.S. companies also may be held liable for actions taken by strategic or local partners or representatives. The FCPA also imposes accounting standards and requirements on publicly traded U.S. corporations and their foreign affiliates, which are intended to prevent the diversion of corporate funds to the payment of bribes and other improper payments. Certain of our customer relationships outside of the U.S. are with governmental entities and are, therefore, subject to the FCPA and other anti-bribery and -corruption laws, including the anti-bribery and -corruption laws of non-U.S. countries. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery and -corruption laws. Despite meaningful measures that we undertake to ensure lawful conduct, which include training and internal control policies, these measures may not always prevent violations of the FCPA or similar laws. We have been subject to regulatory investigations for alleged violations of anti-bribery and -corruption laws, and could be subject to such investigations in the future, which could result in criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement, further changes or enhancements to our procedures, policies and controls, personnel changes or other remedial actions. Violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our operations, cause reputational harm, involve significant management attention and result in a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
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Cybersecurity and data security and protection laws and regulations are evolving and present increasing compliance challenges, which may increase our costs, affect our competitiveness, cause reputational harm, and expose us to substantial fines or other penalties.
Our business and financial performance may be adversely affected by climate change, including changes in regulations, customer demand, technologies and extreme weather. Our business may be impacted by climate change and governmental and industry actions taken in response, which present short, medium and long-term risks to our business and financial condition. Changes in environmental and climate-related laws or regulations, including regulations on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pricing, energy taxes, product efficiency standards, mandatory disclosure obligations and U.S. government procurement requirements, could increase our operational and compliance expenditures and those of our suppliers, including increased energy and raw materials costs and costs associated with manufacturing changes, and lead to new or additional investments in product designs and facility upgrades. In addition, we continue to see ever-increasing demands for offerings focused on addressing climate change, transitioning to lower emission technologies, including low to no carbon products and services, the use of alternative energy sources and other sustainable aviation technologies, and climate adaptation products and services. Customers, shareholders and institutional investors continue to increase their focus on ESG, including our environmental sustainability practices and commitments with respect to our operations, products and suppliers. As a result, we anticipate that we will need to make additional investments in new technologies and capabilities and devote additional management and other resources in response to the foregoing. We may not realize, on a timely basis or at all, the anticipated benefits of these investments and actions for a variety of reasons, including technological challenges, evolving government and customer requirements and our ability to anticipate them and develop in-demand technologies on a timely basis, and other risks related to the development of advanced technologies described above. In addition, certain technologies will be dependent upon government action, such as investments in infrastructure, creating appropriate market incentives and making certain raw materials available for development of certain technologies. Moreover, we rely on our suppliers to timely and effectively adapt and meet our evolving technological supply needs, and they may be unable to fully respond to our requirements in a timely manner or at all. We also face competition risks as our competitors also respond to advancing sustainable technologies. Our competitors may develop these in-demand technologies before we do, their new technologies may be deemed by our customers to be superior to technologies we may develop, and their technologies may otherwise gain industry acceptance in advance of or instead of our products. In addition, as we and our competitors develop increasingly sustainable technologies, demand for our older offerings may decrease or become nonexistent. Our reputation may also be damaged if we or our industry fail, or are perceived to fail, to achieve sustainability goals or commitments or to comply with evolving climate-related regulations. In addition, climate-related litigation and government investigations could be commenced against us, could be costly to defend and could adversely affect our business. Moreover, our business, the businesses of our suppliers, subcontractors, service providers, distributors and customers, and the industries in which we operate could be negatively impacted by increasing frequency and severity of acute extreme weather events caused by climate change, including hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, snow and ice storms, fires, heat waves, and mud slides, and by chronic changes in weather patterns, such as temperature increases, drought and sea level rise. These events could damage our and our suppliers’ facilities, products and other assets, and cause disruptions to our business and operations, supply chain and distribution networks, and the businesses of our customers, and require an increase in expenditures to improve climate resiliency of our operations. Any of the foregoing could materially decrease our revenues and materially increase our costs and expenses.
FINANCIAL, TAX AND INSURANCE RELATED RISKS
We use estimates in accounting for many of our programs, and changes in our estimates could adversely affect our future financial results. Accounting for long-term contracts and related assets requires estimates and judgments related to our progress toward completion and the long-term performance on the contract. Significant judgments include potential risks associated with the ability and cost to achieve program schedule, including customer-directed delays or reductions in scheduled deliveries, and technical and other specific contract requirements including customer activity levels and variable consideration based upon that activity. Due to the nature of the work required to be performed on many of our performance obligations, the estimation of total revenues and cost at completion is complex and subject to many variables. Management must make assumptions and estimates regarding contract revenue and cost (such as estimates of variable consideration, including award fees and penalties), including with respect to: (1) labor productivity and availability; (2) the complexity and scope of the work to be performed; (3) the availability and cost of materials; (4) the length of time to complete the performance obligation; (5) execution by our subcontractors; (6) the availability and timing of funding from our customer; (7) overhead cost rates; and (8) current and past service cost and frequency driven by estimated aircraft and engine utilization and estimated useful lives of components, among other variables. Cost estimates may also include the estimated cost of satisfying our industrial cooperation agreements, sometimes in the form of either offset obligations or ICIP agreements, required under certain contracts. Because of the significance of management’s judgments and estimation processes described above, it is likely that materially different amounts could be recorded if we used different assumptions or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Changes in
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underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates may adversely affect our future results of operations and financial condition.
Significant changes in key estimates and assumptions with respect to our retirement plans, such as discount rate, expected return on plan assets (EROA), and other actuarial factors, could affect our future earnings, equity and pension contributions. We must determine our pension and other postretirement benefit plans’ expense or income, which involves significant judgment particularly with respect to our discount rate, EROA and other actuarial assumptions. These assumptions are evaluated annually at December 31 and when significant events require a mid-year remeasurement. They may change significantly due to changes in economic, legislative, regulatory, and/or demographic experience or circumstances. Changes in our assumptions or actual experience that differs from these assumptions could impact our pension and postretirement net periodic benefit (income) expense, the plans’ funded status, and/or the required cash contributions to such plans, which could negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. Our plan assets are invested in accordance with our investment management objectives and are subject to market volatility and other conditions.
Additional tax expense or exposures could affect our future profitability. We are subject to income taxes in the United States and international jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Changes in tax laws and regulations, as well as changes and conflicts in related interpretations and other tax guidance, and fluctuations in taxable income could materially impact our tax receivables and liabilities and our deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, as well as our income tax expense and tax payments. Additionally, in the ordinary course of business, we are subject to examinations by various tax authorities. In addition to ongoing examinations, there could be additional examinations launched in the future by governmental authorities in various jurisdictions, and existing examinations could be expanded. The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. Additionally, changes in the geographic mix of our sales could impact our tax liabilities and affect our income tax expense and profitability. The global and diverse nature of our operations means that these risks will continue to exist and additional examinations, proceedings and contingencies will arise from time to time. Our competitive position, results of operation, financial condition or liquidity may be affected by the outcome of examinations, proceedings and other contingencies that cannot be predicted with certainty.
Goodwill and other intangible assets represent a significant portion of our assets, and any impairment of these assets could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition. A significant portion of our assets consists of goodwill and other intangible assets, primarily recorded as the result of historical acquisitions or investments in businesses. We may subsequently experience unforeseen events that could adversely affect the value of our goodwill or intangible assets. Our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are subject to an impairment test annually and are also tested for impairment whenever facts and circumstances indicate that goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets may be impaired. In the event of an impairment, any excess of the carrying value of these assets over the fair value must be written off in the period of determination. Finite-lived intangible assets are generally amortized over the useful life of such assets. Future determinations of significant impairments of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets as a result of an impairment test or accelerated amortization of finite-lived intangible assets could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may be unable to obtain debt at competitive rates, on commercially reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts. We depend, in part, upon the issuance of debt to fund our business requirements. If we require additional funding in order to meet our business requirements, a number of factors could cause us to incur increased borrowing costs and to have greater difficulty accessing public and private markets for debt. These factors include disruptions or declines in the global capital markets and/or a decline in our financial performance, outlook or credit ratings. The occurrence of any or all of these events may adversely affect our ability to fund our business requirements.
Quarterly cash dividends and share repurchases are subject to uncertainties and may affect our common stock price. Quarterly cash dividends and share repurchases under our share repurchase program generally constitute components of our capital allocation strategy, which we fund through a combination of operating free cash flow, borrowings and proceeds from divestitures. However, we are not required to declare dividends or make any share repurchases under our share repurchase program. Dividends and share repurchases may be discontinued, accelerated, suspended or delayed at any time without prior notice. Even if not discontinued, the amount of such dividends and repurchases may be changed, and the amount, timing and frequency of such dividends and repurchases may vary from historical practice or from the company’s stated expectations. Decisions with respect to dividends and share repurchases are subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors and are based on a variety of factors. Important factors that could cause us to discontinue, limit, suspend, increase or delay our quarterly cash dividends or share repurchases include market conditions, the price of our common stock, the nature and timing of other investment opportunities, changes in our business strategy, the terms of our financing arrangements, our outlook as to the ability to obtain financing at attractive rates, the impact on our credit ratings, the availability of domestic cash and overall business expectations. The reduction or elimination of our cash dividend, or suspension or elimination of our share repurchase
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program could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Additionally, there can be no assurance that any share repurchases will enhance shareowner value because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased shares of common stock, and short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness.
We face certain significant risk exposures and potential liabilities that may not be adequately covered by indemnity or insurance. A significant portion of our business relates to designing, developing and manufacturing advanced aerospace, defense and technology systems and products. New technologies may be untested or unproven. In addition, we may incur significant liabilities that are unique to our products and services. In some, but not all, circumstances, we may be entitled to indemnification from our customers through contractual provisions, and we may obtain limitations of liability and additional defenses for various reasons including the qualification of our products and services by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) under the SAFETY Act provisions of the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The insurance coverage we maintain or indemnification to which we may be contractually or otherwise entitled may not be adequate to cover all claims or liabilities. Accordingly, we may be forced to bear substantial costs resulting from risks and uncertainties of our business, which would negatively impact our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity. Any accident, failure of, or defect in our products and services, even if fully indemnified or insured, could negatively affect our reputation among our customers and the public, and make it more difficult for us to compete effectively. It could also affect the cost and availability of insurance in the future.
STRATEGIC INITIATIVE AND TRANSACTION RISKS
We may be unable to realize expected benefits from strategic initiatives. In order to operate more effectively and efficiently, from time to time we undertake strategic and other operational initiatives. For example, we are undergoing a significant, multi-year digital transformation initiative to improve our business and reduce costs. Under this initiative, we are leveraging digital capabilities throughout the way in which we conduct our business and provide our products and services to customers, including how we design, build and maintain our products and services. We also continue to engage our Customer Oriented Results Excellence (CORE) operating system to drive continuing improvement into our processes and facilities. In addition, we continue to invest in structural cost reduction in our facilities, including aligning work to more efficient manufacturing centers, implementing advanced manufacturing capabilities including automation, and closing facilities that are not required to meet future capacity and work needs. Other initiatives include the pursuit of advanced technologies and new business acquisitions and subsequent integrations. We also implement restructuring plans from time to time. For example, we recently announced our plans to reorganize our current business segment structure from four to three business segments in the second half of 2023. Restructuring activities include or may result in workforce reductions, global facility reductions, procurement cost reduction activities, legal entity and operational reorganizations and other cost reduction initiatives. These strategic activities are complex and require the investment of resources including in personnel and systems. If we do not successfully manage our current or future strategic initiatives, expected efficiencies and benefits might be delayed or not realized, and our operations and business could be disrupted. In addition, certain U.S. government contracts and programs have begun to require digital engineering and other digital capabilities, and our inability to achieve these capabilities with respect to these programs timely may result in loss of revenues. Risks associated with workforce management issues include unfavorable political responses to such actions, unforeseen delays in the implementation of anticipated workforce reductions, additional unexpected costs, adverse effects on employee morale and the failure to meet operational targets due to the loss of employees or work stoppages. Any of the above factors may impair our ability to achieve anticipated benefits, or otherwise harm our business, or have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
We may be unable to successfully complete the integration of the legacy businesses of United Technologies Corporation (UTC) and Raytheon Company and realize the anticipated benefits of the Raytheon merger. The ultimate success of the Raytheon merger continues to depend, in part, on our ability to successfully combine and integrate UTC and Raytheon Company’s legacy businesses, and realize the anticipated benefits, including synergies, cost savings, innovation and technological opportunities (including technology-driven revenue synergies) and operational efficiencies from the Raytheon merger in a manner that does not materially disrupt existing customer, supplier and employee relations and does not result in decreased revenues due to losses of, or decreases in orders by, customers. We continue to be exposed to risks associated with our ability to identify and achieve revenue synergy opportunities among the legacy businesses. In addition, we may be unable to consolidate all of the corporate and administrative infrastructures and eliminate all of the duplicative operations which we intend, and continue to be at risk for unanticipated issues in integrating information technology, communications and other systems. Any one of these challenges could result in delays, increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenues, reduced expected cash generation, and diversion of management’s time and energy, which could materially affect our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
If we fail to manage potential future acquisitions, investments, divestitures, joint ventures and other transactions successfully, these activities could adversely affect our future financial results. In pursuing our business strategies, we continually review, evaluate and consider potential investments, acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures and other teaming and
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collaborative arrangements. We undertake to identify opportunities that will complement our existing products and services or customer base, as well as expand our offerings and business opportunities into new areas that naturally extend from our core capabilities. In evaluating such transactions, we are required to make difficult judgments regarding the value of business opportunities, technologies and other assets, and the risks and cost of potential liabilities. Further, these transactions involve certain other risks and uncertainties including: (1) the risks involved with entering new markets; (2) the difficulty in integrating newly-acquired businesses and managing or monitoring other collaborative business arrangements; (3) the complexity of separating a portion of our business to enable a divestiture; (4) challenges and failures in achieving strategic objectives and other expected benefits, which may result in certain liabilities to us for guarantees and other commitments; (5) unidentified issues not discovered in RTC’s due diligence; (6) the diversion of our attention and resources from our operations and other initiatives; (7) the potential impairment of acquired assets; (8) the performance of underlying products, capabilities or technologies; and (9) the potential loss of key employees and customers of acquired businesses. In addition, future transactions may impact our deployment of capital, including dividends, stock repurchases, pension contributions, and investments.
If either distribution of the stock of Carrier or Otis, together with certain related transactions, were to fail to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free, including as a result of subsequent acquisitions of our stock (including pursuant to the Raytheon merger), we could be subject to significant tax liabilities. On April 3, 2020, UTC completed the Separation Transactions. UTC distributed all of the outstanding shares of Carrier common stock and all of the outstanding shares of Otis common stock to UTC shareowners who held shares of UTC common stock as of the close of business on March 19, 2020, the record date for the distributions (the Distributions) effective at 12:01 a.m., Eastern Time, on April 3, 2020.We received (1) a private letter ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regarding certain U.S. federal income tax matters relating to the Separation Transactions and Distributions and (2) an opinion of outside counsel regarding the qualification of certain elements of the Distributions under Section 355 of the Code. Although we intend for the Distributions generally to be tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, there can be no assurance that they will so qualify. Even if the Distributions were to otherwise qualify as tax-free transactions under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, either Distribution or both Distributions may result in taxable gain to us (but not our stockholders) under Section 355(e) of the Code if such Distribution(s) were deemed to be part of a plan (or series of related transactions) pursuant to which one or more persons acquire, directly or indirectly, shares representing a 50% or greater interest (by vote or value) in shares of Carrier, Otis, or us, as applicable. If the IRS were to determine that any post-Distribution acquisitions of Carrier stock, Otis stock, or our stock, as applicable, pursuant to such a plan (when aggregated with any pre-Distribution acquisitions of Carrier stock, Otis stock, or our stock, as applicable, pursuant to such a plan) would represent a 50% or greater interest in shares of Carrier, Otis, or us, as applicable, such determination could result in significant tax liabilities to us. For purposes of this test, even if the Raytheon merger were treated as part of such plan, it did not result in an acquisition of a 50% or greater interest in us. Any such tax liabilities imposed on us may adversely affect an investment in us. In addition, we obtained tax rulings in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions and/or opinions of external tax advisors, in each case, regarding the tax treatment of certain Separation Transactions. Notwithstanding the receipt of such tax rulings and opinions, there can be no assurance that the relevant taxing authorities will not assert that the tax treatment of the relevant Separation Transactions differs from the conclusions reached therein. In the event the relevant taxing authorities prevail with any challenge in respect of any relevant Separation Transaction, we would be subject to significant tax liabilities, which may adversely affect an investment in us. Further, under a tax matters agreement that we entered into with Carrier and Otis in connection with the Separation Transactions and Distributions, each of Carrier and Otis generally is required to indemnify us for certain taxes we may incur resulting from the Separation Transactions and/or the Distributions failing to qualify for the intended tax treatment. In addition, under the tax matters agreement, each of Carrier and Otis is responsible for (i) a specified portion of any installment payment we are required to make pursuant to Section 965(h)(2) of the Code and (ii) specified taxes that exclusively relate to the Carrier business or the Otis business, as applicable. The amount of any such taxes for which we would be responsible may be significant, and if we were unable to obtain indemnification payments from Carrier or Otis to which we are entitled under the tax matters agreement and/or other agreements entered into in connection with the Separation Transactions and the Distributions, we would incur significant losses.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We have significant properties in approximately 25 countries, with approximately 515 significant properties comprising approximately 75 million square feet of productive space. Approximately 30% of our square footage related to our significant properties is leased, and 70% is owned. Approximately 60% of our square footage related to our significant properties is located in the United States.
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Our fixed assets as of December 31, 2022 include manufacturing facilities and non-manufacturing facilities such as warehouses, laboratories, office space, and a substantial quantity of machinery and equipment, including general purpose machinery and equipment using special jigs, tools and fixtures and in many instances having automatic control features and special adaptations. The facilities, warehouses, machinery and equipment in use as of December 31, 2022 are in good operating condition, are well-maintained and substantially all are generally in regular use.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are subject to a number of lawsuits, investigations and claims (some of which involve substantial amounts). For a discussion of contingencies related to certain legal proceedings, see “Note 18: Commitments and Contingencies” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Except as otherwise noted, while we are unable to predict the final outcome, based on information currently available, we do not believe that resolution of any of these matters will have a material adverse effect upon our competitive position, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
A further discussion of government contracts and related investigations, as well as a discussion of our environmental liabilities, can be found under the heading “Other Matters Relating to Our Business – Regulatory matters” within Item 1. “Business” of this Form 10-K and in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
737 MAX Aircraft Litigation
Multiple lawsuits have been filed in U.S. courts relating to the October 29, 2018 Lion Air Flight 610 and the March 10, 2019 Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 accidents. Collins Aerospace (Collins) sold certain aircraft parts and systems to The Boeing Company for the 737 MAX aircraft involved in these accidents. Certain of our Collins businesses have been named, along with other third parties, as parties in many of these lawsuits. We have also fully supported all governmental investigations and inquiries relating to the accidents. We do not expect that the lawsuits or governmental investigations or inquiries will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Raytheon Technologies’ common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “RTX.” There were 41,554 registered shareowners at December 31, 2022. The information required by Item 5 with respect to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is contained within Item 12 of this Form 10-K.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph presents the cumulative total shareowner return for the five years ending December 31, 2022 for our common stock as compared to the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index and the S&P Aerospace & Defense (A&D) Index. These figures assume that all dividends paid over the five-year period were reinvested, and that the starting value of each index and the investment in common stock was $100.00 on December 31, 2017.
Comparison of Cumulative Five Year Total Return
Annual Return Percentage
Years Ending
Company/Index12/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/2022
Raytheon Technologies Common Stock(14.66)43.82 (16.73)23.27 20.01 
S&P 500 Index(4.38)31.49 18.40 28.71 (18.11)
S&P Aerospace & Defense Index(8.07)30.33 (16.06)13.22 17.37 

Indexed Returns
Years Ending
Company/IndexBase Period 12/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/2022
Raytheon Technologies Common Stock$100.00 $85.34 $122.74 $102.21 $125.99 $151.21 
S&P 500 Index100.00 95.62 125.72 148.85 191.58 156.88 
S&P Aerospace & Defense Index100.00 91.93 119.81 100.56 113.86 133.64 

https://cdn.kscope.io/c524f0f1a376dcd0cb1e35949e25613c-rtx-20221231_g1.jpg
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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about our purchases during the quarter ended December 31, 2022 of equity securities that are registered by us pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act.
2022
Total Number of Shares Purchased
(000’s)
Average Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of a Publicly Announced Program
(000’s)
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
(dollars in millions)
October 1 - October 312,134 $85.81 2,134 $3,363 
November 1 - November 301,244 95.87 1,244 3,244 
December 1 - December 31869 99.59 869 5,968 
Total4,247 $91.58 4,247 
On December 12, 2022, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program for up to $6 billion of our common stock, replacing the previous program announced on December 7, 2021. Under the 2022 program, shares may be purchased on the open market, in privately negotiated transactions, under accelerated share repurchase programs, and under plans complying with Rules 10b5-1 and 10b-18 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. We may also reacquire shares outside of the program from time to time in connection with the surrender of shares to cover taxes on vesting of restricted stock and as required under our employee savings plan. Our ability to repurchase shares is subject to applicable law. No shares were reacquired in transactions outside the program during the quarter ended December 31, 2022.
ITEM 6.
Reserved.
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to provide information to the reader in understanding our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K, the changes in certain key items in those financial statements between select periods and the primary factors that accounted for those changes. In addition, we discuss certain accounting principles, policies and critical estimates that affect our financial statements. Our discussion also contains some additional context regarding our business, including industry considerations and the business environment, as well as certain forward-looking statements related to future events and expectations. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with the other sections of this Form 10-K, including Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
BUSINESS OVERVIEW
We are a global premier systems provider of high technology products and services to the aerospace and defense industries. We operate in four principal business segments: Collins Aerospace (Collins), Pratt & Whitney, Raytheon Intelligence & Space (RIS) and Raytheon Missiles & Defense (RMD). The Company recently announced its intention to streamline the structure of its core businesses into three principal business segments: Collins Aerospace, Pratt & Whitney and Raytheon. The Company plans to determine the exact composition of each segment and implement the reorganization in the second half of 2023. All segment information included in this Form 10-K is reflective of the existing four segments of Collins, Pratt & Whitney, RIS and RMD in accordance with the management structure in place as of December 31, 2022. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company,” “Raytheon Technologies,” and “RTC” mean Raytheon Technologies Corporation and its subsidiaries.
Industry Considerations
Our worldwide operations can be affected by industrial, economic and political factors on both a regional and global level. Our operations include original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and extensive related aftermarket parts and services related to our aerospace operations. Our defense business serves both domestic and international customers primarily as a prime contractor or subcontractor on a broad portfolio of defense and related programs for government customers. Our business mix also reflects the combination of shorter cycles in our commercial aerospace spares contracts and certain service contracts in our defense business primarily at RIS, and longer cycles in our aerospace OEM and aftermarket maintenance contracts and on our defense contracts to design, develop, manufacture or modify complex equipment. Our customers are in the public and private sectors, and our businesses reflect an extensive geographic diversification that has evolved with continued globalization.
Collins and Pratt & Whitney serve both commercial and government aerospace customers. Revenue passenger miles (RPMs), available seat miles and the general economic health of airline carriers are key barometers for our commercial aerospace operations. Performance in the general aviation sector is closely tied to the overall health of the economy and is positively correlated to corporate profits. Many of our aerospace customers are covered under long-term aftermarket service agreements at both Collins and Pratt & Whitney, which are inclusive of both spare parts and services.
RIS, RMD, and the defense operations of Collins and Pratt & Whitney are affected by U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) budget and spending levels, changes in demand, changes in policy positions or priorities, the domestic and global political environment and the evolving nature of the global and national security threat environment. In addition, our defense businesses engage in both direct commercial sales, which generally require U.S. government licenses and approvals, as well as foreign military sales, which are government-to-government transactions initiated by, and carried out at the direction of, the U.S. government. Changes in these budget and spending levels, policies, or priorities, which are subject to U.S. domestic and foreign geopolitical risks and threats, may impact our defense businesses, including the timing of and delays in U.S. government licenses and approvals for sales, the risk of sanctions or other restrictions.
Government legislation, policies and regulations can impact our business and operations. Changes in environmental and climate change laws or regulations, including regulations on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pricing, and energy taxes, could lead to new or additional investment in product designs and facility upgrades and could increase our operational and environmental compliance expenditures, including increased energy and raw materials costs and costs associated with manufacturing changes. In addition, government and industry-driven safety and performance regulations, restrictions on aircraft engine noise and emissions, government-imposed travel restrictions and limitations, and government procurement practices can impact our businesses.
Business Environment
Global economic and political conditions, changes in raw material and commodity prices and supply, labor availability and costs, inflation, interest rates, international and domestic tax law changes, foreign currency exchange rates, energy costs and
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supply, levels of air travel, the financial condition of commercial airlines, and the impact from natural disasters and weather conditions create uncertainties that could impact our businesses.
Global Supply Chain and Labor Markets. Global supply chain and labor markets are continuing to experience high levels of disruption, causing significant materials and parts shortages, including raw material, microelectronics and commodity shortages, as well as delivery delays, labor shortages, distribution problems and price increases. Current geopolitical conditions, including sanctions and other trade restrictive activities and strained intercountry relations, are contributing to these issues. We have had difficulties procuring necessary materials, including raw materials, components and other supplies, and services on a timely basis or at all. We have also had difficulties hiring qualified personnel, particularly personnel with specialized engineering experience and security clearances. Our suppliers and subcontractors have been impacted by the same issues, as well as ongoing pandemic-related issues, compounding the shortages for us because we rely on them, sometimes as sole-source providers. In addition, as the ongoing recovery in commercial air travel continues, the anticipated increase in new aircraft deliveries and increased demand for our products and services will add to these supply chain and labor market challenges.
We work continuously to mitigate the effects of these supply chain and labor constraints through targeted activities and ongoing programs. We work with our suppliers and subcontractors to assist in mitigation, arrange supply source alternatives, increase our inventory of available materials and parts, and regularly pursue cost reductions through a number of mechanisms. We also continuously monitor labor market conditions and trends and work to mitigate constraints through talent acquisition, partnership, sourcing and recruiting arrangements, workforce succession planning, and initiatives to attract, retain and rehire former employees.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to negatively affect the global economy, our business and operations, the labor market, supply chains, inflation, and the industries in which we operate, although we continue to see signs of ongoing recovery in commercial air travel. While we believe that the long-term outlook for the aerospace industry remains positive due to the fundamental drivers of air travel demand, uncertainty continues with respect to when commercial air traffic capacity will fully return to and/or exceed pre-COVID-19 levels. The pace of the commercial aerospace recovery is tied to general economic conditions and may be impacted by inflation, an economic downturn, or government budget deficits, among other factors, and may also be impacted by a resurgence of the pandemic and corresponding travel restrictions and protocols. Our expectations regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and ongoing recovery and their potential financial impact are based on available information and assumptions that we believe are reasonable at this time; however, the actual financial impact is highly uncertain and subject to a wide range of factors and future developments.
Geopolitical Matters. In response to the Russian military’s invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, the U.S. government and the governments of various jurisdictions in which we operate, including Canada, the United Kingdom, the European Union, and others, have imposed broad economic sanctions and export controls targeting specific industries, entities and individuals in Russia. The Russian government has implemented similar counter-sanctions and export controls targeting specific industries, entities and individuals in the U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate, including certain members of the Company’s management team and Board of Directors. These government measures, among other limitations, restrict transactions involving various Russian banks and financial institutions and impose enhanced export controls limiting transfers of various goods, software and technologies to and from Russia, including broadened export controls specifically targeting the aerospace sector. These measures have adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect, the Company and/or our supply chain, business partners or customers. In the quarter ended March 31, 2022, we reversed $1.3 billion of backlog, which would have been recognized over a span of approximately 10 years, and recorded certain impairment charges and increases to reserves related to operations at our Pratt & Whitney and Collins businesses, as discussed further in “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K. These adverse impacts have been mitigated in part by the identification of alternative suppliers and an increase in the global demand for our products as a result of the current geopolitical environment. Based on information available to date, we do not currently expect these issues will have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
China previously announced that it may take measures against RTC in connection with certain foreign military sales to Taiwan. In addition, China has indicated that it decided to sanction our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Gregory Hayes, in connection with another potential foreign military sale to Taiwan involving RTC products and services. RTC is not aware of any specific sanctions against Mr. Hayes or RTC, or the nature or timing of any future potential sanctions or countermeasures. If China were to impose sanctions or take other regulatory action against RTC, our suppliers, affiliates or partners, it could potentially disrupt our business operations. The impact of potential sanctions or other actions by China cannot be determined at this time.
We have direct commercial sales contracts for products and services to certain foreign customers, for which U.S. government review and approval have been pending. The U.S. government’s approval of these sales is subject to a range of factors, including its foreign policies related to these customers, which are subject to continuing review and potential changes.
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Likewise, regulatory approvals previously granted for prior sales can be paused or revoked if the products and services have not yet been delivered to the customer. If we ultimately do not receive all of the regulatory approvals, or those approvals are revoked, it could have a material effect on our financial results. In particular, as of December 31, 2022, our Contract liabilities include approximately $385 million of advance payments received from a Middle East customer on contracts for which we no longer believe we will be able to execute or obtain required regulatory approvals. These advance payments may become refundable to the customer if the contracts are ultimately terminated.
See Item 1A. “Risk Factors” within Part I of this Form 10-K for further discussion.
New Legislation. In August 2022, the Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors (CHIPS) and Sciences Act and the Inflation Reduction Act were signed into law, each effective as of January 1, 2023. These new pieces of legislation include the implementation of a new corporate alternative minimum tax, an excise tax on stock buybacks, and tax incentives for energy and climate initiatives, among other provisions. We are evaluating the legislation and currently do not expect the legislation to have a material impact on our operations, financial condition or liquidity.
FINANCIAL SUMMARY
We use the following key financial performance measures to manage our business on a consolidated basis and by business segment, and to monitor and assess our results of operations:
Net Sales: a growth metric that measures our revenue for the current year;
Operating Profit (Loss): a measure of our profit (loss) for the year, before non-operating expenses, net and income taxes; and
Operating Profit (Loss) Margin: a measure of our Operating profit (loss) as a percentage of Total Net Sales.
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Total net sales$67,074 $64,388 $56,587 
Operating profit (loss)5,414 4,958 (1,889)
Operating profit (loss) margins8.1 %7.7 %(3.3)%
Operating cash flow from continuing operations$7,168 $7,142 $4,334 
In order to better assess the underlying performance of our business, we also focus on the change in organic net sales on both a consolidated basis and business segment basis, and the change in organic operating profit (loss) on a business segment basis, which allows for better year-over-year comparability. See Results of Operations below for our definition of the organic change in Net sales and Operating profit (loss), which are not defined measures under U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and may be calculated differently by other companies.
We also focus on backlog as a key financial performance measure of our forward-looking sales growth. Total backlog was $175 billion and $156 billion as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Backlog, which is equivalent to our remaining performance obligations (RPO) for our sales contracts, represents the aggregate dollar value of firm orders for which products have not been provided or service has not been performed and excludes unexercised contract options and potential orders under ordering-type contracts (e.g., indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) type contracts). Backlog generally increases with bookings and/or orders and generally decreases as sales are recognized on these bookings and is affected by changes in foreign exchange rates, as well as contract cancellations and terminations, and cost underruns on cost-type contracts.
In addition, we maintain a strong focus on program execution and the prudent management of capital and investments in order to maximize operating income and cash. We focus on adjusted earnings per share (EPS) and measures to assess our cash generation and the efficiency and effectiveness of our use of capital, such as free cash flow, both of which are not defined measures under U.S. GAAP and may be calculated differently by other companies.
Considered together, we believe these metrics are strong indicators of our overall performance and our ability to create shareowner value. We also use these and other performance metrics for executive compensation purposes.
A discussion of our results of operations and financial condition follows below in Results of Operations, Segment Review, and Liquidity and Financial Condition.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
As described in our “Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results” of this Form 10-K, our period-to-period comparisons of our results, particularly at a segment level, may not be indicative of our future operating results. The following discussions of comparative results among periods, including the discussion of segment results, should be viewed in this context. The results of RIS and RMD reflect the period subsequent to the completion of the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020. As such, the results of RIS and RMD for the second quarter of 2020 exclude results prior to the date of completion of the
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Raytheon merger, the estimated impact of which is approximately $400 million of sales and approximately $45 million of operating profit. These amounts, in addition to the first quarter of 2021 results, have been excluded from the organic changes for the year ended December 31, 2021 disclosed throughout our Results of Operations discussion. In addition, as a result of the separation of United Technologies Corporation’s (UTC’s) business into three independent, publicly traded companies – UTC, Carrier Global Corporation (Carrier) and Otis Worldwide Corporation (Otis) (the Separation Transactions) and the Distributions, the historical results of Carrier and Otis are presented as discontinued operations and, as such, have been excluded from both continuing operations and segment results for all periods presented.
We provide the organic change in Net sales and Cost of sales for our consolidated results of operations as well as the organic change in Net sales and Operating profit (loss) for our segments. We believe that these non-Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (non-GAAP) measures are useful to investors because they provide transparency to the underlying performance of our business, which allows for better year-over-year comparability. The organic change in Net sales, Cost of sales and Operating profit (loss) excludes Acquisitions and divestitures, net, and the effect of foreign currency exchange rate translation fluctuations and other significant non-operational items and/or significant operational items that may occur at irregular intervals (Other). Additionally, the organic change in Cost of sales and Operating profit (loss) excludes restructuring costs, the FAS/CAS operating adjustment and costs related to certain acquisition accounting adjustments. Restructuring costs generally arise from severance related to workforce reductions and facility exit costs. We are continuously evaluating our cost structure and have implemented restructuring actions in an effort to keep our cost structure competitive. Acquisition accounting adjustments include the amortization of acquired intangible assets related to acquisitions, the amortization of the property, plant and equipment fair value adjustment acquired through acquisitions, the amortization of customer contractual obligations related to loss making or below market contracts acquired, and goodwill impairment.
Net Sales
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Total net sales$67,074 $64,388 $56,587 
The factors contributing to the total change year-over-year in Total Net Sales are as follows:
(dollars in millions)20222021
Organic (1)
$3,660 $724 
Acquisitions and divestitures, net(676)6,961 
Other(298)116 
Total change$2,686 $7,801 
(1)    See “Results of Operations” for definition of organic. A reconciliation of this measure to reported U.S. GAAP amounts is provided in the table above.
Net sales increased $3.7 billion organically in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to higher organic sales of $2.5 billion at Pratt & Whitney and $2.4 billion at Collins, partially offset by lower organic sales of $0.6 billion at RMD. The $0.7 billion decrease in net sales related to Acquisitions and divestitures, net in 2022 compared to 2021, was primarily driven by the sale of our global training and services business within our RIS segment in the fourth quarter of 2021. The decrease in other net sales of $0.3 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 represents the impact of foreign exchange.
Net sales increased $0.7 billion organically in 2021 compared to 2020 primarily due to higher organic sales of $1.3 billion at Pratt & Whitney, partially offset by lower organic sales of $0.6 billion at Collins. The $7.0 billion sales increase in Acquisitions and divestitures, net in 2021 compared to 2020, was primarily driven by the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020, partially offset by the sale of the Collins military Global Positioning System (GPS) and space-based precision optics businesses in the third quarter of 2020 and the sale of our Forcepoint business in the first quarter of 2021.
See “Segment Review” below for further information by segment.
% of Total Net Sales
(dollars in millions)202220212020202220212020
Net sales
Products sales$50,773 $49,270 $43,319 76 %77 %77 %
Services sales16,301 15,118 13,268 24 %23 %23 %
Total net sales$67,074 $64,388 $56,587 100 %100 %100 %
Refer to “Note 21: Segment Financial Data” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for the composition of external net sales by products and services by segment.
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Net products sales increased $1.5 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to increases in external products sales of $1.5 billion at Collins and $1.2 billion at Pratt & Whitney, partially offset by decreases in external products sales of $0.7 billion at RMD and $0.5 billion at RIS. Net services sales increased $1.2 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to increases in external services sales of $1.2 billion at Pratt & Whitney and $0.5 billion at Collins, partially offset by a decrease in external services sales of $0.5 billion at RIS primarily driven by the sale of the global training and services business in the fourth quarter of 2021.
Net products sales increased $6.0 billion in 2021 compared to 2020 primarily due to an increase in external products sales of $3.7 billion at RMD and $3.0 billion at RIS, both primarily due to the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020, and an increase in external products sales of $1.0 billion at Pratt & Whitney, partially offset by a decrease in external products sales of $1.3 billion at Collins. Net services sales grew $1.9 billion in 2021 compared to 2020 primarily due to an increase in external services sales of $0.8 billion at RIS and $0.4 billion at RMD, both primarily due to the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020, and an increase in external services sales of $0.4 billion at Pratt & Whitney and $0.3 billion at Collins.
Our sales to major customers were as follows:
% of Total Net Sales
(dollars in millions)202220212020202220212020
Sales to the U.S. government (1)
$30,317 $31,177 $25,962 45 %48 %46 %
Foreign military sales through the U.S. government5,042 5,546 4,585 8 %%%
Foreign government direct commercial sales4,327 4,993 3,974 6 %%%
Commercial aerospace and other commercial sales27,388 22,672 22,066 41 %35 %39 %
Total net sales$67,074 $64,388 $56,587 100 %100 %100 %
(1)    Excludes foreign military sales through the U.S. government.
Cost of Sales
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Total cost of sales$53,406 $51,897 $48,056 
Percentage of net sales80 %81 %85 %
The factors contributing to the change year-over-year in total Cost of sales are as follows:
(dollars in millions)20222021
Organic (1)
$2,368 $(1,293)
Acquisitions and divestitures, net(552)5,829 
Restructuring3 (363)
FAS/CAS operating adjustment234 (643)
Acquisition accounting adjustments(348)345 
Other(196)(34)
Total change$1,509 $3,841 
(1)    See “Results of Operations” for definition of organic. A reconciliation of this measure to reported U.S. GAAP amounts is provided in the table above.
The organic increase in total Cost of sales in 2022 compared to 2021 of $2.4 billion was primarily due to the organic sales increases at Collins and Pratt & Whitney noted above. The decrease related to Acquisitions and divestitures, net of $0.6 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily driven by the sale of our global training and services business within our RIS segment in the fourth quarter of 2021. The decrease in other cost of sales of $0.2 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily driven by the impact of foreign exchange, partially offset by charges recorded during the first quarter of 2022 at Pratt & Whitney and Collins related to impairment of customer financing assets for products under lease, inventory reserves, purchase order obligations, and the impairment of contract fulfillment costs that are no longer recoverable, all due to global sanctions on and export controls with respect to Russia. See “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
The organic decrease in total Cost of sales in 2021 compared to 2020 of $1.3 billion was primarily due to an organic Cost of sales decrease at Collins and RMD. The Collins decrease was primarily due to the sales decrease noted above, the benefit of cost reduction initiatives, and the absence of prior year significant unfavorable adjustments. The RMD decrease was primarily due to the absence of an unfavorable profit impact of $516 million related to inventory reserves, contract asset impairments and
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recognition of supplier related obligations for certain international contracts as further described in “Segment Review” below. These decreases in Cost of sales were partially offset by an increase in organic Cost of sales at Pratt & Whitney due to the organic sales increases noted above. The increase related to Acquisitions and divestitures, net of $5.8 billion in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily driven by the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020, partially offset by the sale of the Collins military GPS and space-based precision optics businesses in the third quarter of 2020, and the sale of our Forcepoint business in the first quarter of 2021 as further discussed in “Note 2: Business Acquisitions, Dispositions, Goodwill and Intangible Assets” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K. The $0.4 billion decrease in Restructuring is primarily due to the absence of 2020 severance and restructuring actions at Pratt & Whitney and Collins related to the economic environment primarily caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, and ongoing cost reduction efforts.
For further discussion on FAS/CAS operating adjustment see the “FAS/CAS operating adjustment” subsection under the “Segment Review” section below. For further discussion on Acquisition accounting adjustments, see the “Acquisition accounting adjustments” subsection under the “Segment Review” section below.
% of Total Net Sales
(dollars in millions)202220212020202220212020
Cost of sales
Products$41,927 $41,095 $38,137 63 %64 %67 %
Services11,479 10,802 9,919 17 %17 %18 %
Total cost of sales$53,406 $51,897 $48,056 80 %81 %85 %
Net products cost of sales increased $0.8 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to increases at Collins and Pratt & Whitney, partially offset by decreases in Acquisition Accounting Adjustments and RIS. The changes at Collins, Pratt & Whitney and RIS were related to the changes in products sales noted above. Net services cost of sales increased $0.7 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to increases in external services cost of sales at Pratt & Whitney and Collins, partially offset by a decrease in external services sales at RIS, all driven by the services sales changes noted above.
Net products cost of sales increased $3.0 billion in 2021 compared to 2020 primarily due to increases in external products cost of sales at RIS and RMD principally due to the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020, and an increase in external products cost of sales at Pratt & Whitney, principally driven by the products sales increase noted above, partially offset by a decrease in external products cost of sales at Collins, principally driven by the products sales decrease noted above, the benefit of cost reduction initiatives and the absence of prior year significant unfavorable adjustments. Net services cost of sales grew $0.9 billion in 2021 compared to 2020 primarily due to an increase in external services cost of sales at RIS and RMD principally due to the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020.
Research and Development
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Company-funded$2,711 $2,732 $2,582 
Percentage of net sales4.0 %4.2 %4.6 %
Customer-funded (1)
$4,376 $4,485 $4,111 
Percentage of net sales6.5 %7.0 %7.3 %
(1)    Included in Cost of sales in our Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Research and development spending is subject to the variable nature of program development schedules and, therefore, year-over-year fluctuations in spending levels are expected.
Company-funded research and development in 2022 was relatively consistent with 2021. The increase in company-funded research and development of $0.2 billion in 2021 compared to 2020, was primarily driven by $0.2 billion related to the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020.
The decrease in customer-funded research and development of $0.1 billion in 2022 compared to 2021, was primarily driven by lower expenses on various programs at RMD, partially offset by an increase in expenses on the Next Generation Interceptor (NGI) program at RMD. The increase in customer-funded research and development of $0.4 billion in 2021 compared to 2020, was primarily driven by $0.6 billion related to the Raytheon merger on April 3, 2020, partially offset by lower expenses of $0.2 billion on various military and commercial programs at Pratt & Whitney and lower expenses of $0.1 billion at Collins primarily related to the sale of the military GPS and space-based precision optics businesses in the third quarter of 2020.
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Selling, General and Administrative
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Selling, general and administrative$5,663 $5,224 $5,540 
Percentage of net sales8.4 %8.1 %9.8 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $0.4 billion in 2022 compared to 2021, primarily driven by higher information technology-related costs at Corporate, Collins and Pratt & Whitney, and higher combined expenses at Collins and Pratt & Whitney principally driven by higher employee-related costs and $0.1 billion of charges related to increased estimates for credit losses due to global sanctions on and export controls with respect to Russia. See “Note 1: Basis of Presentation and Summary of Accounting Principles” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information on Russia sanctions.
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $0.3 billion in 2021 compared to 2020, primarily driven by the absence of $0.4 billion of prior year charges related to increased estimates of expected credit losses due to customer bankruptcies and additional allowances for credit losses at our Pratt & Whitney and Collins segments, lower costs of $0.3 billion due to the sale of our Forcepoint business in the first quarter of 2021, and lower general and administrative restructuring costs of $0.3 billion primarily related to 2020 severance and restructuring actions at Collins and Corporate related to the economic environment primarily caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Raytheon merger and ongoing cost reduction efforts, partially offset by an increase in expenses of $0.4 billion related to the Raytheon merger, and higher employee-related costs.
Other Income, Net
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Other income, net$120 $423 $885 
Other income, net includes equity earnings in unconsolidated entities, royalty income, foreign exchange gains and losses, and other ongoing and nonrecurring items.
The decrease in Other income, net of $0.3 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily due to the absence of a gain of $269 million on the sale of RIS’s global training and services business in the fourth quarter of 2021, as further discussed in “Note 2: Business Acquisitions, Dispositions, Goodwill and Intangible Assets” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K, $69 million of charges associated with the disposition of two non-core businesses at Collins in the second quarter of 2022, a $42 million charge in the fourth quarter of 2022 associated with a divestiture of a small non-core Naval Power business at RMD, and the absence of prior year foreign government wage subsidies related to COVID-19 at Pratt & Whitney of $41 million, partially offset by the absence of an accrual of $147 million in the fourth quarter of 2021 related to the ongoing Department of Justice (DOJ) investigation into contract pricing matters at RMD.
The decrease in Other income, net of $0.5 billion in 2021 compared to 2020, was primarily due to the absence of $595 million of gains on the sales of the Collins businesses, in the third quarter of 2020, a decrease of $178 million of foreign government wage subsidies related to COVID-19 at Pratt & Whitney and Collins and an accrual of $147 million in the fourth quarter of 2021 related to the ongoing DOJ investigation into contract pricing matters at RMD, partially offset by a gain of $269 million on the sale of RIS’s global training and services business in the fourth quarter of 2021. The remaining change was spread across multiple items with no common or significant driver.
Operating Profit (Loss)
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Operating profit (loss)$5,414$4,958$(1,889)
Operating profit (loss) margin8.1 %7.7 %(3.3)%
The increase in Operating profit (loss) of $0.5 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily driven by a decrease in Acquisition accounting adjustments, the operating performance at our operating segments and a decrease in Corporate and Eliminations and other, partially offset by the change in our FAS/CAS operating adjustment, all of which are described below in “Segment Review.”
The change in Operating profit (loss) of $6.8 billion in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily driven by the operating performance at our operating segments, including the impact of the Raytheon merger, the absence of the $3.2 billion goodwill impairment in the second quarter of 2020 related to two Collins reporting units, and an increase in our FAS/CAS operating adjustment of $690 million primarily as a result of the Raytheon merger. Included in the increase in Operating profit was a decrease in restructuring costs of $625 million primarily related to 2020 restructuring actions taken at our Collins and Pratt & Whitney segments and the absence of 2020 unfavorable profit impact of $516 million related to inventory reserves, contract
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asset impairments and recognition of supplier related obligations for certain international contracts at RMD as further described in “Segment Review” below.
Non-service Pension Income
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Non-service pension (income)$(1,889)$(1,944)$(902)
The change in Non-service pension income of $0.1 billion in 2022 compared to 2021 was primarily driven by the impact of an increase in discount rates, partially offset by prior years’ pension asset returns exceeding our expected return on plan assets (EROA) assumption.
The change in Non-service pension income of $1.0 billion in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily driven by the decrease in the discount rates at December 31, 2020 compared to the prior period, the Raytheon Company domestic defined benefit pension plan amendment described below and prior years’ pension asset returns exceeding our EROA assumption.
In December 2020, we approved a change to the Raytheon Company domestic defined benefit pension plans for non-union participants to cease future benefit accruals based on an employee’s years of service and compensation under the historical formula effective December 31, 2022. The plan change does not impact participants’ historical benefit accruals. Benefits for service after December 31, 2022 will be based on a cash balance formula.
Interest Expense, Net
(dollars in millions)202220212020
Interest expense$1,300 $1,330 $1,430 
Interest income(70)(36)(42)
Other non-operating expense (income)(1)
46 28 (22)
Interest expense, net$1,276 $1,322 $1,366 
Total average interest expense rate - average outstanding borrowings during the year:4.0 %4.1 %4.0 %
Total average interest expense rate - outstanding borrowings as of December 31:4.0 %4.0 %4.2 %
(1)    Primarily consists of the gains or losses on assets associated with certain of our nonqualified deferred compensation and employee benefit plans, as well as the gains or losses on liabilities associated with certain of our nonqualified deferred compensation plans.
Interest expense, net in 2022 was relatively consistent with 2021.
Interest expense, net in 2021 was relatively consistent with 2020. Included in Interest expense, net was a decrease in interest expense primarily due to the repayment of long-term debt.
Income Taxes
202220212020
Effective income tax rate11.6 %15.9 %(24.4)%
The 2022 effective tax rate includes a benefit of $214 million related to the Foreign Derived Intangible Income (FDII) benefit, $207 million associated with legal entity and operational reorganizations implemented in 2022, and $164 million associated with U.S. research and development credits. The increase in the FDII benefit from 2021 is primarily attributable to the capitalization of research or experimental expenditures for tax-purposes, enacted as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 effective beginning January 1, 2022.
The 2021 effective tax rate includes tax benefits of $244 million associated with legal entity and operational reorganizations implemented in 2021, $172 million associated with U.S. research and development credits and $121 million associated with FDII, and tax charges of $73 million associated with the revaluation of deferred taxes resulting from the increase in the United Kingdom (U.K.) corporate tax rate to 25% enacted in 2021. In the first quarter of 2021, we recorded $148 million of tax charges associated with the sale of the Forcepoint business, and subsequently recognized a $104 million tax benefit due to the revaluation of that tax benefit as a result of completing the divestiture of RIS’s global training and services business for a gain in the fourth quarter of 2021.
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The 2020 negative effective tax rate is a result of having tax expense of $575 million on a loss from continuing operations before income taxes of $2.4 billion. The loss from continuing operations before income taxes in 2020 includes the $3.2 billion goodwill impairment, most of which was non-deductible for tax purposes. Tax expense includes net deferred tax charges of $416 million resulting from the Separation Transactions and the Raytheon merger primarily related to the impairment of deferred tax assets and the revaluation of certain international tax incentives, and incremental tax expense of $177 million related to the disposal of businesses, including the sales of businesses at Collins, the airborne tactical radios business at RIS and the entry into a definitive agreement to sell Forcepoint. Also included in the 2020 effective tax rate are tax benefits of $142 million associated with U.S. research and development credits and $83 million associated with FDII.
For additional discussion of income taxes and the effective income tax rate, see “Income Taxes” within Critical Accounting Estimates, below, and “Note 13: Income Taxes” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Net Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations Attributable to Common Shareowners
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)202220212020
Net income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to common shareowners $5,216 $3,897 $(3,109)
Diluted earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations$3.51 $2.58 $(2.29)
Net income from continuing operations attributable to common shareowners for 2022 includes the following:
acquisition accounting adjustments of $1.5 billion, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.99;
impairment charges and reserve adjustments related to the global sanctions on and export controls with respect to Russia of $210 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.14;
combined charges associated with disposition of businesses at Collins and RMD of $102 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.07; and
restructuring charges of $91 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.06.
Net income from continuing operations attributable to common shareowners for 2021 includes the following:
acquisition accounting adjustments primarily related to the Raytheon merger of $1.7 billion, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $1.13;
net debt extinguishment costs of $524 million, net of tax, in connection with the early repayment of outstanding principal, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.35;
tax benefits of $244 million associated with legal entity and operational reorganizations implemented in the third quarter 2021, which had a favorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.16;
tax expense of $148 million related to the sale of our Forcepoint business in the first quarter of 2021, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.10, and the subsequent revaluation of that tax benefit of $104 million in the fourth quarter of 2021, due to the completion of the divestiture of RIS’s global training and services business for a gain, which had an favorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.07;
accrual of $147 million related to the ongoing DOJ investigation into contract pricing matters at RMD, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.10;
restructuring charges of $121 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.08; and
gain on the sale of our global training and services business within our RIS segment of $126 million, net of tax, which had a favorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.08.
Net loss from continuing operations attributable to common shareowners for 2020 includes the following:
$3.2 billion of primarily non-deductible goodwill and intangibles impairment charges related to our Collins segment, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $2.37;
acquisition accounting adjustments primarily related to the Raytheon merger of $1.4 billion, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $1.06;
significant unfavorable contract adjustments at Pratt & Whitney and Collins of $667 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.49;
restructuring charges of $598 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.44;
$415 million of tax charges in connection with the Separation Transactions, including the impairment of deferred tax assets not expected to be utilized, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.31;
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unfavorable profit impact at RMD of $412 million, net of tax, related to certain direct commercial sales contracts for precision guided munitions with a certain Middle East customer, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.30;
increased estimates of expected credit losses driven by customer bankruptcies and additional allowances for credit losses of $300 million, net of tax, which had an unfavorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.22; and
gains on the sales of the Collins businesses of $240 million, net of tax, which had a favorable impact on diluted EPS from continuing operations of $0.18.
Loss from Discontinued Operations Attributable to Common Shareowners
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)202220212020
Loss from discontinued operations attributable to common shareowners $(19)$(33)$(410)
Diluted loss per share from discontinued operations$(0.01)$(0.02)$(0.30)
On April 3, 2020, we completed the separation of our commercial businesses, Carrier and Otis. Effective as of that date, the historical results of the Carrier and Otis segments were reclassified to discontinued operations for all periods presented. See “Note 3: Discontinued Operations” within Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Loss from discontinued operations attributable to common shareowners and the related change in diluted loss per share from discontinued operations in 2022 was relatively consistent with 2021.
The change in Loss from discontinued operations attributable to common shareowners of $377 million and the related change in diluted loss per share from discontinued operations of $0.28 in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily due to higher prior year costs associated with the separation of our commercial businesses, including debt extinguishment costs of $611 million, net of tax, in connection with the early repayment of outstanding principal, partially offset by prior year Carrier and Otis operating activity, as the Se